॥१॥ समाधिपाद - 1.Samādhi Pāda - Contemplation



results: 1 - 10 of 51 from chapter 1

  • योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां । मलं शरीरस्य च वैद्यकेन ॥ योऽपाकरोत्तं प्रवरं मुनीनां । पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिरानतोऽस्मि

    Yogena cittasya padena vācāṃ । malaṃ śarīrasya ca vaidyakena ॥ yo’pākarottaṃ pravaraṃ munīnāṃ । patañjaliṃ prāñjalirānato’smi .

    " I respectfully bow down with folded hands and offer my salutations to Sage Patanjali, the highest among the Munis (sages), who has presented the remedies for removing the impurities of the body through his treatise on Ayurveda , of language through his treatise on grammar (Patanjala Mahabhashya) and the impurities of the Chitta (mind field) through his treatise on Yoga (Yoga Sutras of Patanjali) " .



  • 1.1 : अथ योगानुशासनम्॥१॥
  • 1. Atha Yogānuśāsanam.
  • Now, an exposition of  YOGA .
  • The disciplines of integration are here. Patanjali analyses the components of consciousness

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.2 : योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः॥२॥
  • 2. Yogaś citta vṛtti nirodhaḥ.
  • Yoga restrains the mind-stuff (Chitta) from taking various forms (Vrttis). 
  • Yoga is about restraining the thought-streams natural to the mind.  Yoga restrains fluctuations of the consciousness. Yoga is the art and science of mental discipline , to make the mind cultured and mature. Chitta is the subtlest form of cosmic intelligence ( mahat ) .The eyes are only a secondary instrument, not the organ of vision. The organ of vision is in the nerve centre of the brain. Sometimes a man is asleep  with his eyes open. The light is there and the picture is there, but a third thing is necessary; mind must be joined to the organ. The mind takes the impression farther in, and presents it to the determinative faculty—Buddhi—which reacts. Along with this reaction flashes the idea of egoism. Then this mixture of action and reaction is presented to the Purusa, the real Soul, who perceives an object in this mixture. The organs (Indriyas), together with the mind (Manas), the determinative faculty (Buddhi) and egoism (Ahamkara), form the group called the Antahkarana (the internal instrument). They are but various processes in the mind-stuff, called Chitta ( consciousness ) . The waves of thought in the Chitta ( mindstuff )  are called Vrtti ( the whirlpool). The bottom of the lake we cannot see, because its surface is covered with ripples. It is only possible when the rippled have subsided, and the water is calm, for us to catch a glimpse of the bottom. If the water is muddy, the bottom will not be seen; if the water is agitated all the time, the bottom will not be seen. If the water is clear, and there are no waves, we shall see the bottom. That bottom of the lake is our own true Self; the lake is the Chitta, and the waves are the Vrttis. Again, this mind is in three states; one is darkness, which is called Tamas, just as in brutes and idiots; it only acts to injure others. No other idea comes into that state of mind. Then there is the active state of mind, Rajas, whose chief motives are power and  njoyment. “I will be powerful and rule others.” Then, at last, when the waves cease, and the water of the lake  becomes clear, there is the state called Sattva, serenity, calmness. It is not inactive, but rather intensely active. It is the greatest manifestation of power to be calm. It is easy to be active. Let the reins go, and the horses will drag you down. Anyone can do that, but he who can stop the plunging horses is the strong man. Which requires the greater strength, letting go, or restraining? The calm man is not the man who is dull. You must not mistake Sattva for dullness, or laziness. The calm man is the one who has restraint of these waves. Activity is the  anifestation of the lower strength, calmness of the superior strength. To restrain it, and to checkthis outward tendency  is the first step in Yoga, because only in this way can the Chitta get into its proper course. Although this Chitta is in every animal, from the lowest to the highest, it is only in the conscious human form that we find intellect, and until the mind-stuff can take the form of intellect it is not possible for it to return through all these steps, and liberate the soul. Immediate salvation is impossible for the non conscious animal ( who cant pass the colour/ mirror test )  although they have mind, because their Chitta cannot as yet take that form which we call intellect. Chitta manifests itself in all these different forms - scattering, darkening, weakening, and concentrating. These are the four states in which the mind-stuff manifests itself. First a scattered form, is activity. Its tendency is to manifest in the form of pleasure or of pain. Then the dull form is darkness, the only tendency of which is to injure others. The commentator says the first form is natural to the Devas, the angels, and the second is the demoniacal form. The Ekagra, the concentrated form of the Chitta, is what brings us to Samadhi. The sadhaka’s aim is to bring consciousness to a state of purity and transclusence. Antakharana ( conscience ) unifies ahamkara ( ego ) and antaratma ( soul ) by a common thread. Yoga stops mind chatter ( fluctuating thought ). Stillness is dharana ( concentration ) and silence is dhyana ( meditaion ) Restraining the fluctuations of the mind is the goal ( samadhi ). Yoga is both the means and the end.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.3 : तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम्॥३॥
  • 3. Tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe’vasthānam.
  • Then the seer dwells in his own true unmodified splendour.
  • As soon as the waves have stopped, and the lake has become quiet, we see the ground below the lake. So with the mind; when it is calm, we see what our own nature is. When the waves of consciousness are stilled , they can longer distort the true expressions of the soul. Revealed in his own nature , the radiant seer abides in his own grandeur. In this state wisdom dawns clear. The vision of the soul radiates without any activity on the part of chitta . Once realized , the soul abides in its own seat.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.4 : वृत्तिसारूप्यमितरत्र॥४॥
  • 4. Vṛtti sārūpyam itaratra.
  • At other times the seer is identified with the fluctuating thoughtstreams 
  • When someone blames you , you go into a state of sorrow.  This is a modification, Vrtti, and you identify yourself with it - the result is misery.  Noone should be able to make you feel guilty without your own consent.  The natural tendency of consciousness is to become involved with the object seen.  No human cries ( sheds tears ) unless out of selfishness – the person identifies himself with the sorrow. When the soul does not radiate its own glory it is a sign that the thinking faculty has manifested itself n place of the soul. Imprint of objects is transmitted to chitta through senses of perception. Chitta absorbs these impressions and is modified by them . The soul is in fog. Chitta becomes murky and causes changes in behavior and mood as it identifies itself with objects seen.We are aware of the internal facet of chitta only when it speaks with the voice of conscience. Yoga aims at restraining the senses of ensnarement , cleansing the fogged lens of chitta , until it transmits only the light of the soul.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.5 : वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः॥५॥
  • 5. Vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ.
  • The thought-streams are five-fold,  cognizable or non-cognizable , painful or not painful.
  • Pain may be hidden in the non-painful state and vice versa. When consciousness take the lead the seeds of change is not in the seer. Cognizable pains are anhillated by yoga.  Incognizable pains are prevented from rising to the state of cognition by freedom from vasanas ( desires ), non attachment ( vairagya ) and of course by yogic sadhana.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.6 : प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रास्मृतयः॥६॥
  • 6. Pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ.
  • They are caused by correct knowledge , illusion , delusion, sleep and memory
  • Consciousness has five qualitative types of intelligence.- mudha ( stupid ), ksipta ( distracted ), viksipta ( agitated ), ekagra ( focused ) and niruddha ( restrained ). Hence fluctuations are also classified in five categories. Wrong perception (viparyaya ) are gathered by the senses of perception and they influence the mind—like the six blind men and the elephant . Fancyful knowledge ( vikalpya )causes the mind to live in an imaginary state . Memory helps one recollect the right experiences at right time for right understanding. Consciousness is empty in sleep . In sleep we experience a quiet state of mind (manolaya ) Correct knowledge is direct knowledge from the core of the being. It is intuitive , hence pure and beyond the field of intellect.  Direct knowledge leads man to a state of consciousness called amanaskatva (liberation ).

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.7 : प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि॥७॥
  • 7. Pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ pramāṇāni.
  • Direct perception, inference, and competent evidence, are proofs.
  • Correct knowledge is based on three kinds of evidence - direct perception, correct inference or deduction, and testimony from authoritative sacred SRUTI scriptures or men of great ethos SMRITI.  Initially, individual perception should be ascertained by rational logic, and then checked to correspond to traditional or scriptural wisdom. This process necessitates the enlightened intelligence, or buddhi. Intellect is subtler than mind.    It is concerned with the knowledge of acts and the analysing ability, and becomes noticeable only through its monolithic quality, intelligence, which is closer to consciousness rather than to the mind or thought process. The real guru is the pure intellect within. The purified and aspiring mind is the disciple. The quality of intelligence is inherent but inactive, so one's primary step must be to awaken it. The practice of asana brings intelligence to the surface of the cellular body through stretching and to the physiological body by holding the pose. Once aroused, intelligence can unwrap its vibrant aspect, its ability to tell apart.  When discrimination has been cultivated and intelligence is full and dazzling, ego retreats  .  But spiritual intelligence, which stands for true wisdom, gets through only when discrimination ends. Wisdom does not function in dichotomy. It recognises only oneness. It does not abandon the wrong, it perceives only the right.  Just as the totally pure citta, free from sensory entrapments, gravitates towards the atman, so, once intelligence has accomplished the highest knowledge of nature, it is attracted inwards towards the soul Aptavakyam, is the direct perception of the Yogi, of those who have seen the truth. We are all of us struggling towards knowledge, but you and I have to struggle hard, and come to knowledge through a long tedious process of reasoning, but the Yogi, the pure one, has gone beyond all this.  Any new discovery of truth does not contradict the past truth, but fits into it.   Truth must have a possibility of verification. If a man says “I have seen a vision,” and tells me that I have no right to see it, I believe him not. Everyone must have the power to see it for himself. No one who patents and sells his spiritual knowledge is an Apta.  An apta ( realized yogi ) is  pure, and that he has no selfish motive; that he has no thirst for gain or fame. Have you seen our modern FAKE gurus? They crave the limelight . Even if they donate a rupee these selfish evil men want to squeeze something out of it. Apta Vakyas – the words of seers and Yogis who have realised and have given their emphatic declaration in the Upanishads – Yo Vai Bhuma Tat Sukham; Na Alpe Sukham Asti-  Chandogya Upanishad 7.23.1 5000 BC (The Infinite is the satisfying happiness. In the finite no happiness). You can get that Supreme Bliss only in that transcendental Bhuma which is not conditioned by time, space and causation.  But man is deluded into thinking that he can obtain bliss from the objects

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  • 1.8 : विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम्॥८॥
  • 8. Viparyayo mithyājñānam atadrūpa pratiṣṭham.
  • Illusory or flawed knowledge is based on non-fact or the non-real.
  • Illusory knowledge is based on the misrepresentation of reality. Incorrect understanding and mistaken conceptions contaminates the consciousness. This blocks the sadhaka in his efforts to go through the seer, and may give rise to a dual or split personality.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.9 : शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः॥९॥
  • 9. Śabdajñānānupātī vastu śūnyo vikalpaḥ.
  • Verbal knowledge devoid of substance or reality is fancy or imagination.
  • There is another class of Vrttis called Vikalpa.  A word is uttered, and we do not wait to consider its meaning; we jump to a faalthu conclusion immediately. It is the sign of weakness of the Chitta.   The weaker the man the less he has of restraint. .Vikalpa, a vague and uncertain knowledge have no substantial basis, and which does not correspond to reality.  If vikalpa is brought down to the level of factual knowledge by examination, trial, error, and discrimination, it can arouse a craving for correct or true knowledge, and delusion can be transformed into vision and discovery..

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 1.10 : अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना वृत्तिर्निद्रा॥१०॥
  • 10. Abhāva pratyayālambanā vṛttir nidrā.
  • Deep sleep is the modification of the mind which has for its substratum nothingness.
  • The next class of Vrttis is called sleep and dream. Sleep is a state in which all activities of thought and feeling come to a close. During sleep, the senses of perception repose in the mind - the mind in the consciousness and the consciousness in the being. Sleep constitutes three kinds  . In deep sleep, these four types of knowledge are absent - the senses of perception discontinue to function because their king, the mind, is at rest. This is abhava, a state of nihility, a feeling of emptiness.  Sleep furnishes one a glimpse of the seer, but only murkily, because the light of discrimination, viveka, is befogged.    Simulation of this state of sleep when one is awake and aware is named samadhi, in which the seer witnesses his own form. When you meditate your brain goes from Beta 25 Hz to Alpha 12 Hz and then to Theta 7 Hz. Delta is the slowest of all 5 brain frequencies- others being , alpha, beta, theta and gamma . Your brain goes into the delta range of 1 to 3 Hz range during deep non REM dreamless sleep. You also go to this range when you are knocked unconscious in a boxing bout, or if you are given anesthesia in the hospital. Masters of meditation and the ancient Indian rishis could go into this range easily ( Samadhi ) and still be conscious and aware . During this delta range the brain is at the lowest frequency but at the highest amplitude.Theta brain waves are associated with " subconscious mind " -- while delta is connected with " unconscious mind ".   Beginners of meditation can go only to alpha and theta. The lesser ancient Vedic rishis took Soma , a potent drug stronger than LSD to go into the delta range for terrific intuition . Maharishis with 12 strand dNA and a king sized pineal gland did NOT need soma. They could tap into " universal knowledge " ( the mind beyond our own or the collective unconscious)

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