॥२॥ साधनपाद - 2. Sādhana Pāda - Practice

results: 21 - 30 of 55 from chapter 2

  • 2.21 : तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा॥२१॥
  • 21. Tadartha eva dṛśyasyātmā.
  • The very existence of the seen is for the sake of the seer.
  • Nature and intelligence exist solely to serve the seer's true purpose - emancipation.  Intelligence exists to serve as the seer's agent, to liberate the consciousness from avidya. If the sadhaka slackens in his sadhana and becomes inattentive, the senses agitate the seer and he is again hitched within the pleasures of the senses. This study of mind and investigation through intelligence is the innermost pursuit - antaratma sadhana. This sutra conveys that consciousness, the essence of nature, which is cognisable, exists for the sake of the seer who sees for the sake of seeing.  As a dancer,  after having performed for the observer , stops dancing, so does Prakṛti cease to perform for an individual Puruṣha when her task is accomplished—a corner stone of Samkhya Vedanta . The dancing girl dances as long as the male observer is there. The moment the observer ceases to look at her and understands the dance perfectly, she fails to amuse him anymore. Purusha, or supreme consciousness ( BrahmAn ) , is the impassive observer of all phenomena. She moves from transcendence to immanence and undergoes a series of transformations through which the multiform world comes into being.  Purusha, was never really in bondage, or enmeshed with Prakriti.  Prakriti cannot be perceived, not because of its non-existence, but because of its subtlety. It is perceived in its effects. Sankhya  accepts the principle of satkarya-vada, i.e. the effect exists in cause.

    The ignorant differentiate between Sankhya and Yoga; not the wise. He who considers the two as integrated has the right insight – Bhagawat Gita (5.4) 4000 BC

    I have said before that two paths are available in this world - Yoga of knowledge as followed by the Samkhyas and Yoga of action as practiced by the Yogins .– Bhagawat Gita (3.3)- 4000 BC

    The root cause (Brahman) is to be apprehended by Samkhya-yoga - Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.13) -5000 BC

    There is no wisdom like Samkhya – Mahabharata 4000 BC

    In Samnkhya, direct perception is the most important and fundamental source of all knowledge. When senses cannot directly perceive due to their limitations, inference is needed such as in philosophical disputations. The very existence of Purusa ( BrahmAn – morphogenetic consciousness ) is possible only through inference. Patanjali drew heavily upon Sankhya philosophy in the development of his Yoga Sutras, and many of the practical methods and techniques of yoga rest on Sankhya's philosophical foundations. . Yoga is  a complete exercise program for body,  mind and spirit. SaMkhya and SaNkhya is same .  Samkhya as you can see was a masterpiece of modeling the ways of the inner universe. Maharishi Kapila said that the universe arose through the union of nature (prakriti) and consciousness (purusha).

    Of all trees I am the banyan tree, and of the sages among the demigods I am Narada. Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha, and among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila.- Bhagawat Gita (10.26)

    Sankhya unified the two concepts of science and religion by demonstrating its equivalence through axiomatic laws. The Sankhya system is based on Sat-kārya-vāda or the theory of causation. According to Satkāryavāda, the effect is pre-existent in the cause. Philosophical texts from this era such as the Katha Upanishad, Shvetashvatara Upanishad and Bhagavad Gita have clear references to Sankhyan terminology and concepts. The Sankhya system is an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance.  Tantric system borrows the abstract dualism of Sankhya and modifies it into a personified male–female dualism. The white invader converted Tantra into debauched sex. As we evolve, the spirit will control the mind and body to determine our thoughts, words and actions. At the apex of evolution, the mind takes its cues from the spirit and the body from the mind.

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  • 2.22 : कृतार्थं प्रति नष्टमप्यनष्टं तदन्यसाधारणत्वात्॥२२॥
  • 22. Kṛtārtham prati naṣṭam apyanaṣṭam tad anya sādhāraṇatvāt.
  • The relationship with nature ceases for emancipated beings, its purpose having been satiated, but its processes continue to affect others
  • As soon as the vehicles of nature which act as agents of the seer fulfill their task of freeing him from his mental and sensory prison, they are stilled, having reached their purpose. The bond between the seer and nature comes to a culmination. Nature ceases to exist for him. He is able to perceive his own form (svarupa). However, the vehicles of nature, elements, their subtle qualities, cosmic intelligence, individual self, ego, intelligence, senses of perception and organs of action are common to all, so for others, who remain caught up in the world's commotions, the bondage lives on. In the thirteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita, the one who sees the field (prakriti) as distinct from the knower of the field (purusha) is called wise. Krishna advises Arjuna that "He who sees himself not to be the doer, he sees indeed (Bhagawad Gita  XIII:29). When the seer is perceived as distinct from the "I" that claims, the yogin then loses interest in the generation of compulsive citta-vrittis (mind chatter ).. Nothing is claimed by the "I". With this movement the sediment of prior conditioning (samskara) is cleared away; objects shine forth devoid of inherent, defined form (svarupa-sunya); the consciousness-of or "I-vs.-that" consciousness has retreated; pure witnessing takes place. In this state of pure consciousness, attention cannot be separated from the intended: awareness is both subject-free (anahamvadi) and object-free (nirvastuka). Yoga may thus be defined not as a union of appropriating self with objects, even religious objects of appropriation, nor as Cartesian separation of thinker from thought, but rather as a moment in which there is the nonseparation of knower, knowing, and known. The point of yoga is to have direct access to the intended world without the interference of impure residues. Yoga seeks to sever projects, present from a time without beginning, that obscure direct perception through the seer. the yogi excises a part of his corpus of being--citta vritti--so that the unseen seer, the witness, may be known. 'Mind' is not a proper English translation of what the Yoga calls 'Chitta', especially in the system of Patanjali. The entire mind-stuff is called Chitta. It is better to use the word 'psyche' instead of the word 'mind', because the former denotes a larger composite structure than the single function indicated by the word 'mind'. Mind is that which thinks in an indeterminate manner; the intellect is that which thinks in a determinate manner; the ego is that which asserts the individuality of one's own self. There are other functions of the psyche such as memory, often associated with the subconscious level. It is impossible for anyone to be aware that something is outside, unless there is an isolated thinking or an individualising principle, known in the Vedanta psychology as the Antahkarana, and in the Yoga psychology of Patanjali as Chitta. "Antahkarana" is a Sanskrit term, which literally translated into English, would mean, "the internal organ". That is perhaps the best way we can put it in English. The internal organ, by which we cognise or perceive things outside, is the Antahkarana. The same thing is called Chitta in Yoga psychology. Yoga is control of the mind, restraint of the mind-stuff. Yoga is Chitta-vritti-nirodhah. As a word, vritti means literally vortex (of consciousness), or "circular activity with no beginning and no end". Training in yoga in the larger sense – namely, concentration, attention, and meditation – can help stop these fluctuations and quiet the chatter, so that you can get in touch with a truer sense of self, and a more peaceful, watchful sort of awareness. In the context of Hinduism and yoga, vrittis refer to different tendencies, or psycho-physical propensities, which give scope for the mind to express a variety of feelings and emotions. Hindu texts describe samskaras to be a result of past actions and experiences that have left an imprint on the mind. The expression of samskaras gives rise to vrittis, which collectively represent the behaviour that makes each person unique: their desires and repulsions, their predispositions and complexes. Purusha is the Witness. Prakriti produces effects for his enjoyment. Purusha is ‘solitary, neutral, a spectator, and non-agent’ (Samkhya Karika). Purusha is solitary because even though as consciousness he is the Witness to the effects produced by Prakriti and her three gunas, Purusha remains pure and untouched. The three gunas are born of Prakriti. It is their imbalance that causes the wheels-within-wheels to turn and produce the hologram. After a cyclical Dissolution of the world the gunas return to and remain in a state of perfect balance until next time of Creation. Purusha abides in Prakriti (prakritsthas) as Witness to the effects of her gunas (Bhagawad Gita .XIII.21). Even though Purusha as Witness remains untouched by the gyrations and effects of Prakriti’s gunas, Purusha temporarily mistakes these ‘transformations’ as his own. Purusha wrongly assumes that he is the ‘agent’ of Prakriti’s manifestations. The Samkhya Karika states that it is his proximity with Prakriti that causes this false impression. In the process of his enjoyment of the world, Purusha begins to consider the polarities of pleasure-and-pain (sukha-duhkha), etc. as his own. This confusion, caused by attachment, eventually makes Purusha realize that he has become bound in the webs of Maya that are produced by Prakriti's gunas. Therefore after experiencing pain, Purusha realizes that he has become attached (guna-sangas) to those polarities which are the cause of the endless cycles of birth and death in both good and evil wombs (sad-asad-yoni-janmasu). The Atman enters into human bodies and becomes Purusha, which is Consciousness. There Purusha ‘correlates’ with the Unmanifest principle Prakriti, which is not conscious but has the female power (Shakti) to produce and manifest this polarity universe through the three gunas. The proximity - a sort of illusory union - of Purusha to Prakriti causes Purusha to forget his real state, which in reality is not capable of being affected by Prakriti’s changes; and he begins to mistake these effects, pleasure-and-pain (sukha-duhkha), as his own. Krishna tells Arjuna that the one who Knows from direct experience (vetti) this temporal and actually nonexistent ‘correlation’ between Purusha the real Self as Atman and the unreal Prakriti who produces the illusory, is not born again! Knowledge of the Real brings release from endless transmigration ( Bhagawad Gita XIII.23). Purusha is the Witness and experiencer. Prakriti works through the three gunas and the five senses to produce what Purusha experiences. Purusha would not develop this Discriminative Wisdom without Prakriti providing the experiences of pleasure (sukha) and pain (duhkha), etc.Purusha becomes indifferent ...The game is over once Purusha realizes the mechanics of their ‘correlation’ through his newly acquired Discriminative Wisdom. He recognizes that she is distinct from him. He comes to know her. The text says literally that she is ‘seen’ by him (maya drsta) and therefore he becomes indifferent (iti upeksha-kah). The one (Purusha) thinks: ‘she has been seen by me’ and therefore loses all interest; the other (Prakriti) thinks ‘I have been seen’ and ceases to act further. Therefore, even if there is still connection there is no motive for further evolution.--- Samkhya Karika, Verse 66. The writer of the Samkhya Karika compares Prakriti to a maiden who is modest in the sense of being extremely delicate with an acute sensitivity and ‘who cannot bear exposure to the prying glance of a stranger ... Having been seen [recognized] once by the Purusha through discrimination, will in no case expose herself again.’ My opinion is that nothing is more modest than the Prakriti: Knowing  that ‘I have been seen,’ she no more comes within the sight of Purusha.---- Samkhya Karika, Verse 61.While this comparison obviously is taken from another time when women of noble descent were not permitted to be seen by strangers or even the sun, the meaning is conveyed that for Prakriti the performance is over and she will not continue her dance. The gunas will cease their allure and stop the show.Destroyed like a burnt up seed ... We are told that perfect Knowledge is attained by this ‘recognition’ and afterwards Purusha ‘continues to live for a while invested with the body, just like a potter’s wheel continuing to revolve, even when the potter ceases in his efforts at revolving the wheel due to the momentum of the past impulse’ (Samkhya Karika 67).,,The attainment of ‘direct knowledge’ causes the ‘entire stock of subliminal impressions of deeds,’ which are the fuel of repeated births, to get ‘destroyed like a burnt up seed, and no more produces any fruit in the form of experiences of rebirth, life, etc.’‘ ... is not born again’.

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  • 2.23 : स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोपलब्धिहेतुः संयोगः॥२३॥
  • 23. Sva Svāmi śaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhihetuḥ saṁyogaḥ.
  • The conjunction of the seer with the seen is for the seer to discover his own nature.
  • The powers of purusa and prakrti are designated for Self-Realisation. The purpose of their contact is the blossoming of their innate powers, and the seer's discovery of his own essential nature.  This sutra makes clear that a desire for synthesis or a close association or assimilation between the owner, the 'owning' and the owned has existed since the beginning of civilization. By the light of pure knowledge, the owner, the seer, perceives and cognises whatever is to be perceived or cognised through his association with nature. If this association is fed by ignorance, it leads the master towards enjoyment, desire, and complaints, and ties him down. But if non-attachment is garnered, it leads to detachment or renunciation - vairagya. If the master maintains constant vigilant awareness of his consciousness, associates with nature without attachment and stays a witness, nature (prakrti) leads its owner, the soul, to freedom – moksa. The cause of our painor pleasure is always our joining ourselves with the body.Samyoga is connection or an intimate union between the mind and the being or Purusha, which allows the Purusha to observe the outside world. It is another story that although the experience is happening outside of the Purusha, this very union causes the Purusha to associate and attach with the experience and get dragged around by it.   Rather than simply observing, when the Purusha gets attached to the experience due to the samyoga, that is the root cause of suffering. The union of Owner (Purusha) and owned (Prakiti) causes the recognition of the nature and powers of them both. Union is necessary for the Purusha to realize himself with the help of Prakriti. When apart, they don’t express themselves. Through the Prakriti we realize that we are the Purusha. Perceiving the worldly objects is experience and perception of the real nature of the seer is liberation. Ignorance is the cause of the union between the seer and the seen whereas true knowledge dispels ignorance.  True knowledge is not the real cause of liberation, but technically it is the absence of ignorance that results in liberation. Full liberation is a step beyond discriminative intelligence and involves complete separation between purusha and buddhi. Prakriti, or buddhi, shows ignorance as it needs purusha for its functioning.   Purusha, too appears to have ‘adarshana’ as it needs to provide illumination to the buddhi. In sutra 2.17 Patanjali states that "union between purusha and prakriti is the cause of the suffering that can and should be avoided".  Now in sutra 2.23 we note that "this union between purusha and prakriti is REQUIRED to understand the true nature of the powers of both purusha and prakriti".  So, it seems as if this union is both good and bad depending upon how we look at it. My understanding is that it causes suffering when we are only interested in the ‘experience’ of the material world. On the other hand this union can lead to kaivalya if start working on developing discriminatory wisdom and finally realize the separation between purusha and prakriti. I wrote the below in my blogsite profile. QUOTE:- This blogsite will transform your mind . You yourself, are the teacher, the pupil, the messiah, the seeker, the traveller and the destination . It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to this profoundly sick society :UNQUOTE  .   COMMIES ( atheists ) without core values  killed maximum people on this planet.  Why? We have been brainwashed from a young age by big brother’s media.  150 years ago, Darwin had zilch idea , what DNA is,  or a cell is.  He was under instructions by Freemasons to say exactly what he said—to remove God and intelligent design from the equation and to shove in EVOLUTION . As per this nonsense, Giraffes neck became longer as the poor animal was given taller and taller trees to eat leaves from— really?  Oh yeah ??   7000 years ago Sanatana Dharma knew this is nonsense. A cell is the smallest unit of the human body and hence is the building block of life. There are millions of different types of cells, which have unique functions and features. The total amount of cells in a human body exceeds 100 trillion—or one hundred thousand billion cells. You cannot imagine how complex a microscopic cell is unless you enlarge it mentally say to the size of a huge bubble say the size of Mumbai. Only then you will appreciate the mind boggling and supreme intelligent design, with the surface of the cell having millions of ports, constantly opening and closing –allowing constant passage in and out.. Our ancient seers understood the majestic human body . More than 500 processes take place just in one cell of the liver, all in terrific speed of nano seconds. About 1 billion red blood cells are produced in the body every hour, inside each of which there are about 300 million molecules of Haemoglobin..  Every cell in our body came from division of the original single sperm cell. After that every cell chose its own individual shape and its tasks in a CONSCIOUS  manner, to make you look like what you see in the mirror externally. Atheists and commies why deny god do NOT understand all this. Every new cell knew where it must go and what it must do, when to start dividing, when to top dividing, with whom to form partnership, whom to keep away from, which hostile bacteria to kill, which friendly bacteria to ignore, when to commit suicide , what human organ it must form—all with perfect timing. They are all aware of each others functions and there is total harmony. Why are our NCERT books still peddling mad man and Rothschild agent Charles Darwin’s theory ? What is the Indian govt afraid of ? Or is Jew Rothschild still ruling India ?   Does our govt still think that the mangy sack of Darwin containing ridiculous goodies like dried finches and beaks  he picked up from Galapagos islands and Patagonia had all the answers?  Nobody else on the planet understood consciousness the way the ancient maharishis undertood it.  They were NOT dreamers , but supermen . Modern doctors know that if you give an unconscious person a placebo injection, it wont work. Consciousness plays a vital role. What is consciousness? A double slit quantum experiment revealed to the shocked world the powers of observation and consciousness in COLLAPSING A WAVE into matter— or the power of mind over matter.  After the shocking double slit experiment almost all western physicists converted to Hinduism and wrote down in their wills that they want to be cremated.  6200 year ago Ayurveda depended  on the mind body connection to heal the body. It is about “remembered wellness” —to bring the body back to its original energy DNA blueprint state. This is different from western medicine which works on a “ cause and effect “ principle, and addressing the symptoms till they disappear.  This causes side effects. Matter and mind are both possibilities of consciousness. Collapsed quantum possibilities could be physical or mental. It is about conscious choice and downward causation. This downward causation is free and unpredictable and the result of CONSCIOUS CHOICE, where outer follows inner-- it does not care for logical algorithms. Quantum healing works outside the fabric of space and time.True natural healing takes place at the quantum level.The holographic brains extension throughout the body is the nervous system.  The pineal gland has a lot to do with the placebo effect, as it has to do with the energy body. The only reality is consciousness. It is our intent that affects reality. Mind can wipe off mistakes or deviations of the blueprint .  DNA protein scientists may not agree, that in natures perfect design nothing ever dies. Brain is the ultimate pharmacy.  It produces the ultimate body friendly  antibiotics, painkillers, tranquilisers etc with perfect dosage. This is the  reason why there are no side effects. Consciousness affecting reality is the placebo effect. Mind is non material but it works in partnership with communicator molecules.  A quantum event does not follow cause and effect rules. How did the ancient Indian yogis survive on substandard diets for several years during severe penance?  Alexander the great came to India as he knew that all ancient Greek knowledge (100% )was from India, stolen and patented . His own religion was pagan Indian. Alexander the Great’s soldiers witnessed sages in deep meditation hopelessly entangled in creepers with cobras crawling due to the vibes -- and got totally psyched. They could not understand all this, it created fear , and they were done . They wanted out !

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  • 2.24 : तस्य हेतुरविद्या॥२४॥
  • 24. Tasya heturavidyā
  • Lack of spiritual understanding (avidya ) is the cause of the false identification of the seer with the seen.
  • Avidya and maya are the same, but avidya is individual and maya is cosmic.   Maya is only an instrument that Brahman uses to project the universe.  Through maya Brahman projects Himself as many.  Amalgamating of prakrti with purusa can either lead to emancipation or block one's progress by enmeshing one within desires and emotions.  Avidya, ignorance or lack of awareness, is at the root of the confusion that fetches suffering to one as well as pleasure. Vidya (discriminative knowledge) destructs ignorance, because a fire will burn only as long as fuel lasts.  When discernment relegates doubt, pure understanding begins the process of disownment and detachment which releases one from the pinions of possessing and being possessed. Avidya is the first of the 5 kleshas (which means coloring or veil), it is the first veil that covers the non-dual formless Consciousness.  The 5 kleshas are avidya, asmita, raga, dvesha, abhinivesha.  Avidya appears in four stages: 1) dormant or inactive, 2) attenuated or weakened, 3) interrupted or separated from temporarily, or 4) active and producing thoughts or actions to varying degrees. Avidya means without Truth or without knowledge. It is the first form of forgetting the spiritual Reality. It is not just a thought pattern in the conventional sense of a thought pattern. Rather, it is the very ground of losing touch with the Reality of being the ocean of Oneness, of pure Consciousness. Avidya is usually translated as ignorance, which is a good word, so long as we keep in mind the subtlety of the meaning. Ignorance is something that is removed, like removing a veil that obstruct the view. Then, with the ignorance removed, we see knowledge or Vidya clearly. Prakriti is known as Maya; when impure (being mixed up with rajas and tamas) it is called Avidya.  Once the basic principles of Avidya (Veiling, Ignorance) are understood, as well has how they progressively move awareness outward through Adhyasa (Projecting, Superimposition), it is easier to see the way in which these two are systematically reversed so as to attain the highest goals of traditional Yoga. Avidya (Nescience) or Maya, is also the Undifferentiated. There is no Ignorance (Avidya) outside the mind. The mind alone is Avidya, the cause of the bondage of transmigration. When that is destroyed, all else is destroyed, and when it is manifested, everything else is manifested.   With the rise of Vidya or realization, the entire effects of Avidya, even though beginningless, are destroyed together with their root – like dreams on waking up from sleep. The knowledge of the identity of the Jiva and Brahman entirely consumes the impenetrable forest of Avidya or Nescience. For one who has realized the state of Oneness, there is no seed left for future transmigration—seeds are fried. The Gurus as well as the Shrutis instruct the disciple, standing aloof; while the man of realization crosses (Avidya) through Illumination alone, backed by the grace of God. Nescience or Avidya has two functions: Avarana or the power to conceal and Viksepa or the power to project. You don’t see the universe as it really is because your perception of the universe is individual. You see things only partial through a little window of your eyes. This partial knowledge ( narrow window bandwidth / squelched senses ) has nothing to do with the totality of experience ( six blind men and the elephant ) and thus cannot be considered to be truth. The knot of ignorance and the knot of karma ( past soul samskaras /impressions ) compose the nature of avidya. Jiva is endowed with all the same qualities as Brahman, but jiva, through its association with avidya, thinks itself to be limited.  . When the jiva, the individual soul, learns to be free from the strong clutches of avidya, he realizes his true Self and becomes one with Brahman. You can remain in the bondage of avidya or you can release yourself. It is your choice. You are the way you are because you wanted to be this way. No one else has described for you or made any plans for you. This is your own planning. Each individual creates avidya. Thus it is your own ignorance and superimpositions that are responsible for your suffering. Without eliminating attachment and passions, spiritual knowledge does not arise. The joys of the sensory gratification that one delights in are short-lived, and when the fruits of these actions are exhausted, one again falls back into the cruel clutches of avidya or ignorance. The term maya is closely related to with avidya. Maya can be described as apparent reality—that which does not exist though it appears to exist. Ma means “no”, ya means “that”. An example of maya is a mirage in the desert. Even though you think you see it, it doesn’t exist. Maya can cause you to have an accident, but it cannot enlighten you. Maya is the reason you see the one absolute truth as many. The process of unlearning,   is about freedom from the conditioning or from the known. Unlearning things that are no longer useful can be an extreme form of changing, like an almost physical casting off of inner clothing.  Unlearning involves a conscious individual confrontation of the past with the future, involving paradigms or beliefs that come from the fully formed past at odds with those that come from a future, still in formation. If you need to fill up water in a bottle, the ( hot ) air which served the bottle well for long time, must be allowed to escape. Unlearning is about moving away from something rather than moving towards something. Unlearning is not about right or wrong. It is about being open to and exploring something that lies underneath the judgment, underneath the right and the wrong. The learning cycle, which should be a virtuous circle that positively feeds itself. Our habit of planning  in a particular way may have to worked wonderfully well in the past, but unknown to us, it has become a primary cause of our inability to adapt to changes in our context.  Even in mild  forms, these habits can become ingrained, comfort zones, addictions, hiding places of denial and self-protection. Often our ability to see something, to appreciate its true nature, is skewed or hidden by the judgement we give it, the pigeon-hole we have prepared for it. .Old ingrained habits that do not serve us take time to break and some may never be broken. Behind the fears live the memories that gave rise to them . The cat who fell in hot water is circumspect with cold water too. We cannot disprove our past or invalidate our memories. We go back and work gently with what happened, see the memories afresh and hopefully find the strength necessary to free ourselves from their power with active help from yoga. It is painful to unlearn those deep, hidden and sometimes painful patterns that mask and influence the way we do things. Added to this are soul samskaras ( phobias )  picked up from past lives. Ultimately, we have to acknowledge that it is not our methods, strategies, tools or techniques which define the core and quality of our development practice, but ourselves  our past, our present and our future, and the will we can find to face these. In Sanskrit when an ‘A’ is placed in front of a word it means ‘not’ or ‘without’ that word. So ‘A’ in front of vidya means not vidya. Vidya is a word used for the highest Truth, Knowledge, or Knowing. When one truly experiences the non-dual formless Consciousness, one really knows, one lives in vidya, one lives in knowing the Absolute Reality. Therefore avidya is a state that means you are not living in vidya, the truth is forgotten, is veiled, and therefore is it a state of ignorance of ignoring truth. To remove everything that is not vidya will bring the experience of vidya. Therefore it is the avidya that we have to deal with, get to know and move beyond. We need to un-color this coloring in order to find vidya. To say that we live in ignorance doesn’t mean that we are dumb or stupid, it is merely a realization that we are ignoring our true Self (that we live unconsciously while our true nature is pure Consciousness) and that this avidya needs to be removed. Avidya is all bad, because if the veil would be lifted all at once we would not be able to take it. Even our fives senses have narrow bandwidths and are squelched to prevent overload and breakdown.  We dont need to see the waves going from the TV remote to the TV.   There is so much unconscious movement underneath the veil that it would flood us if it would be presented to us at once, probably make us literally crazy. Therefore this veil is like a mother, who lovingly hides what we cannot take until we are ready to take the responsibility. When our responsibility grows we will be able to allow the unconscious movements to come forward and not get sucked into them. We would be able to know that these movements are not who we are and will be able to stay non-attached to them. Therefore, it appears as if avidya and vairagya are dancing to together. In the beginning avidya has the lead, lovingly keeps us protected as a mother, but slowly with practice vairagya will take over this dance until the whole veil can be lifted and the Self rests it its own nature. avidya is used when we speak of individual ignorance, and the word maya is used when we speak of cosmic illusion. The word maya is used is regard to Brahman, when the Absolute Reality seems to play as maya.   Mind you, these explanations are NOT for the shallow minded.

    IX: They enter into blind darkness who worship Avidya (ignorance and delusion); they fall, as it were, into greater darkness who worship Vidya (knowledge).

    X :By Vidya one end is attained; by Avidya, another. Thus we have heard from the wise men who taught this.

    XI: He who knows at the same time both Vidya and Avidya, crosses over death by Avidya and attains immortality through Vidya. Those who follow or “worship” the path of selfishness and pleasure (Avidya), without knowing anything higher, necessarily fall into darkness; but those who worship or cherish Vidya (knowledge) for mere intellectual pride and satisfaction, fall into greater darkness, because the opportunity which they misuse is greater.-  Isha Upanishad 5000 BC

    Om Purnamadah Purnamidam
    Purnat Purnamudachyate
    Purnasya Purnamadaya
    Purnameva Vashishyate
    Om shanti, shanti, shanti—  Isha Upanishad 5000 BC

    Om. That is infinite, this is infinite;
    From That infinite this infinite comes.
    From That infinite, this infinite removed or added;
    Infinite remains infinite.
    Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

    The path that avidya (or ignorance) leads one to and the path that vidya (or knowledge) takes one through are extremely different ones and are very far from each other. O Naciketas! I understand that you are the one in search of knowledge since you are not interested in fulfilling all the worldly, material desires that I offered to grant you. Those desires did not move you even an inch from your strong focus (of attaining the knowledge).  Katha Upanishad Chapter 2 Verse 4 -5000 BC

    “When all things that have a beginning are ruled out, what remains is the truth – which is the cessation of avidya or ignorance. You may regard it as something or as no-thing: that is to be sought which is when ignorance has been dispelled. The sweetness one tastes is not experienced by another: listening to someone’s description of the cessation of avidya does not give you enlightenment. In short, avidya is the belief that there exists a reality which is not Brahman or cosmic consciousness. When there is the certain knowledge ‘This is indeed Brahman’, avidya ceases.” Yoga Vashista

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.25 : तदभावात् संयोगाभावो हानं तद् दृशेः कैवल्यम्॥२५॥
  • 25. Tad abhāvāt saṁyogābhāvohānam tad dṛśeḥ kaivalyam.
  • The destruction of ignorance through right knowledge breaks the link binding the seer to the seen. This is kaivalya or emancipation.
  • By the removal of ignorance, conjunction is removed. This is the absolute freedom of the seer.This sutra explains the effect of breaking down the link that binds the knower to the known. At this point, the seen loses its hold and influence on the seer, miseries terminate and the soul is heightened to experience perfect freedom. Yoga is specifically designed to help one avert the sort of slips and errors in one's conduct which store up future sorrows, and it builds up one's strength, vitality and valour to deal with the inevitable problems of life. One is aware that one's mind turns more gladly to the world's pleasures than to the vision of the soul. It is a bridge between the senses and the spirit; it is a secret enemy, and a deceitful friend, which can change one's conduct without giving one time to consider. Patanjali advises the sadhaka to train the mind and encourage discrimination, so that objects and events are seen only for what they are, then they cannot gain power over one. This is exceedingly difficult, but an understanding of nature will help. Humans are matter (temporarily) and live surrounded by matter. Interaction with matter or nature is the condition of one's life. Without discrimination one cannot break free, but with understanding and practice one can use this interaction to reach highest peace and bliss. One should exercise discrimination and thereby realise that attachment to sense objects which give instant gratification is the cause of bondage and non-attachment to sense objects leads to liberation. So it is mandatory that infatuation with sense objects is renounced. One should not debase oneself clinging to the lower nature like the animals. Lord Krishna in Bhagawad Gita emphasises the changing nature of the mind. Attachment to worldly pleasures and hedonist values locks one to samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death while contrarily detachment from the infatuation of worldly pleasures frees one from samsara. 6000 years ago, in the middle of the battle field of Kurukshetra , Lord Krishna reveals the method of escaping perpetual incarceration in the material existence. The mind has the propensity to be one's dearest friend so why not utilise it to uplift oneself out of material darkness and into spiritual light. A controlled mind can accomplish so many beneficial endeavours for one's wellbeing. Whereas an uncontrolled mind is one's worst enemy performing base and degrading activities leading to destruction.When the mind is freed from attachments one becomes lucid and clear and the mind is like one's best benefactor. When the mind is disturbed by attachments it becomes distracted and distorted and the mind becomes one's worst malefactor.If one wants to experience heaven on earth, one has to grasp the qualities of nature, the gunas, i.e., the polarity of rajas and tamos, the eternal pulse of nature between movement and stillness, and the higher balancing state of sattva. Nature has degrees of subtlety. Sometimes it is more densely or unmistakably manifest than at others, and Patanjali analyses as follows. The four parts are - distinguishable (visesa), unspecified or universal (avisesa), phenomenal (lihga) and, beyond this, noumenal (alihga). The five energetic qualities of nature, the elements, are, with the senses of perception and organs of action, distinguishable; while the five counterparts of the elements, sound, touch, taste, sight and smell are without specific signs (alihga); so also is the ego (asmita). All these are subject to the gunas, which intermingle the behavioural patterns of an individual. If one understands the flow of these forces, one can reach balance, and from balance go on to true freedom. If not, one is swayed from one extreme to another, between pleasure and another pain. Yoga, says Patanjali, is the way to harmonise oneself at every level with the natural order of the universe, from the physical to the most subtle, to reach the total state of health which brings stability, to cultivate the mind with real understanding, and to reach out ultimately to undifferentiated infinity. The seer is an absolute knower - awareness personified. Though pure, it becomes entangled in the illusions of the mind, which are part of nature. Yet the vehicles of nature are all there to help the seer to experience serene, pristine, divine purity. Then, the elements of nature and their counterparts ebb and unite in the root of nature, mula-prakrti.Perfection is attained when the intellect becomes as pure as the Atman itself. When the soul realises that it is absolutely independent and it does not depend on anything else in this world, this highest knowledge, Kaivalya, Isolation or perfect independence comes inhe soul feels that it is ever free, unchanging, immortal, beginningless, endless, infinite, beyond time, space and causation, full of bliss, peace and knowledge. The Purusha is an embodiment of intelligence. He is ever pure and eternally free. He is always the silent witness of the play of Prakriti. Through intellect, the Purusha appears as if seeing, although really he never sees or does anything. The qualities of intellect are superimposed on the Purusha.  Just as the real colour of the flower appears on the transparent crystal, so also the qualities of Buddhi appear on the Purusha. Hence, the Purusha appears to be happy or miserable. The Purusha unites with the Buddhi and enjoys the different objects. This is the cause for human sufferings. Ignorance is the cause for this conjunction. This Prakriti and Purusha are united from time immemorial. If this union is separated, the Purusha recognises his original, divine glory. The original conjunction is the union of Purusha with the Buddhi. Through Buddhi, he is united with body. He mistakes this perishable body for the real Purusha. Through this body, he gets united with wife, children, relatives and friends. The whole Samsara has started now. Disconnect yourself from the Prakriti and become a Mukta Purusha. This is the essential teaching of Raja Yoga.Spiritual detachment is isolation from transient desires and discarding shackles binding our body and mind to the world. When we approach the Divine, we escape the gravitational pull of worldly desires, and leap into an infinite dimension, free from material cravings and illusion of self-love. He who would be serene and pure needs but one thing, detachment. With detachment comes freedom of the mind from the material world, but at the same time, attachment to the Divine becomes even more essential. This is not the FAKE Bhakti Yoga thingy where singers keep wandering around singing praises of god and doing nothing else. Laws of Karma rule, they is no moksha without making the karmic baggage zero.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.26 : विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः॥२६॥
  • 26. Vivekakhyātiraviplavā hānopāyaḥ.
  • The ceaseless flow of discriminative knowledge in thought, word and deed destroys ignorance, the source of pain.
  • One must continually separate truth from untruth.   The means to liberation is uninterrupted discriminative discernment.   The steady flow of deep, discriminating awareness unravels the avidya (illusion) and leads to the liberation of purusa. The root word viveka means discrimination, meaning this deeper, discriminating awareness (vivekakhyatih) is the kind of knowledge that is beyond the senses. This knowledge is also beyond our intellect, and even our highest perception. Once we lift the veil of maya, our knowledge becomes even clearer, and we experience kaivalya, or liberation. Un-fluctuating sound judgement with unremitting awareness is the essence of true knowledge, the only means to eliminate ignorance and free the seer from the seen. It should always be kept in the highest state of awareness and attentiveness, known as vivekakhyati, the crown of wisdom.  The seeds of false knowledge need to be burnt up through unremitting yogic practices to maintain an unbroken flow of discriminative intelligence. Viveka is uninterrupted discrimination.  Adi Shankaracharya defines Viveka as discrimination; wisdom or Buddhi made active. In this seventh chapter, Sri Krishna emphasizes the need to translate knowledge into a living reality by practising it, i.e., the knowledge acquired through the higher mind has to be realized. In Viveka Chudamani, Adi Shankaracharya  says that foolish is the man who does not strive after freedom from bondage—after obtaining, at last, a human birth.  “Therefore let the wise one strive after Freedom, giving up all longing for sensual self-indulgence; approaching the good, great Teacher (the Higher Self) with soul intent on the object of the teaching”. (Verse 8).  Viveka is the discrimination between the real and the unreal, the permanent and the non-permanent, Atman and Anatma.  In Kaivalyopanishad, Brahma tells Ashwalayana, who wanted to acquire knowledge of the ultimate truth, "By faith, devotion and meditation you can understand the ultimate truth."  You must first develop Viveka or discrimination between the real and the unreal and Vairagya (dispassion)  for the enjoyment of objects herein and hereafter/ Vairagya born of Viveka only will be of a lasting nature. Such a Vairagya only will be helpful to you in your spiritual practices.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.27 : तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञा॥२७॥
  • 27. Tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā.
  • Through this unbroken flow of discriminative awareness, one gains perfect knowledge which is composed of seven spheres.
  • According to Patanjali, the seven states of conscious awareness are - emerging consciousness (vyutthana citta), restraining consciousness (nirodha cittta), sprouted or individualised consciousness (nirmana cittta), tranquil consciousness (prasanta citta), attentive consciousness (ekagrata citta), fissured or rent consciousness (chidra citta) and ripe or pure consciousness (paripakva or divya citta).  Samyama means  integration.  Dharana, dhyana (the seventh limb), and samadhi (the eighth limb) taken together compose samyama. By the practice of Samyama, the Yogi gets knowledge and powers. Patanjali says that samadhi appears when we are able to let go of our mental machinations, samskaras (past psychic imprints), klesha (afflictive emotions), karma (programming), vasana (habitual tendencies), and similar habitual impositions of conditioning and conditioned belief systems, which support the citta-vrtti (spinning or slant/tilt of the mindfield). Since samadhi is essentially nirvikalpa (beyond concepts), and since concepts are built upon words, then obviously the words have to be let go. Dhyana (meditation) brings forth the dawning of an extraordinary transpersonal (more rarefied than the most subtle) consciousness which can not be brought about without the complete stilling (nirodha) of the ordinary mind which is constantly being modified, colored, and disturbed (yogash citta-vrtti-nirodah). The profound and sacred trans-rational (nirvikalpa), trans-cognitive (asamprajnata) and all encompassing non-dual truth of Reality-As-It-Is is self revealing once the doors of perception are opined -- once the practitioner gets in touch with the intrinsic light of wisdom within and the veil is lifted. various applications of samyama can lead to the siddhis (accomplishments, abilities, masteries, and powers), but they are not to be seen as attainments because no ego attains or possess it.  The yogi’s true insight has seven ultimate stages. There are seven frontiers to be integrated between the seen (prakrti) and the seer (purusa). They comprise - integration of the body (safira samyama), the senses (indriya samyama), energy (prana samyama), mind (mano samyama), intellect (buddhi samyama), consciousness (citta samyama) and soul (atma samyama), each realising its own individual identity. Expertise in yoga will bring this sevenfold knowledge.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.28 : योगाङ्गाऽनुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः॥२८॥
  • 28. Yogāṅgānuṣṭhānād aśuddhi kṣaye jñānadīptir ā vivekakhyāteḥ.
  • By dedicated practice of the various aspects of yoga, impurities are destroyed - the vision of wisdom radiates in glory.
  • Patanjali summarises the effects of yoga in this one sutra. He says that by habitual and dedicated practice, impurities of the sadhaka's body and mind are consumed, the causes of adversaries removed and the crown of wisdom is acquired. This wisdom and accomplishment keeps the sadhaka guiltless and free of conceit. Here, instead of the usual word abhyasa (repeated practice), anusthana is used. It is a venerable and noble word with a spiritual significance, implying practice with dedication or religious commitment. The former brings stability; the latter develops maturity of intelligence. Yoga can cure or diminish one's physical, mental, moral and spiritual woes. Perfection and success are certain only if one practises with love and whole-hearted dedication. Upon the destruction of impurities as a result of the practice of yoga, the lamp of knowledge arises. This culminates in discriminative discernment. By the practice of yoga, impurities are destroyed. These impurities,  are nothing but the five kleshas – avidya (ignorance), asmita (egoism), raga (likes), dvesha (dislikes), and abhinivesha (fear of death) – discussed earlier. When impurities are removed, the light of full knowledge (jnana-dipti) shines through. Starting with this sutra, Patanjali shifts the focus from the highly theoretical discussion to a practical approach for the attainment of the goals and objectives of yoga. Because of the wide acceptance of these eight limbs of yoga, Patanjali’s yoga is often referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" or the "eight limbs of yoga".  In Sutra 2.26 Patanjali stated that the state of "viveka khyati" (discriminative wisdom) is the cause for the elimination of ignorance which leads to the apparent union between Purusha and Prakriti. In the current sutra, he lays out the means to get to that state of viveka khyati. Patanjali uses the term khyati  to mean  expound, so clearly that no ambiguity remains. khyati refers to the aspect of knowledge that clearly describes the defining characteristics of its object. By using this term,Patanjali is telling us that avidya-driven union comes to an end when our knowledge regarding the union of purusha and prakriti is crystal clear. Merely knowing that prakriti is the material cause of the universe and purusha is pure consciousness does not free us from misery. Such knowledge is purely intellectual, vague, and devoid of any practical substance. Khyati is totally different. It sheds such a powerful light on both purusha and prakriti that we realize instantly what we are. In the light of khyati, we know ourselves. We also know precisely what purusha and prakriti are, what caused them to embrace each other blindly and seemingly aimlessly, and what holds them together. At the dawn of this knowledge (khyati), we regain our faith and trust in ourselves. This gives us the strength to distinguish the real from the unreal, lasting happiness from short-lived pleasure, and true freedom from mere escape.This strength is called viveka shakti, the power of discrimination. This extraordinary knowledge (khyati), accompanied by the power of discrimination (viveka), here is termed viveka-khyati, the purest means of bringing this avidya-driven union to an end. Patanjali reminds us that this discerning knowledge (viveka-khyati) has to be strong and mature enough to withstand the test of time. We attain discerning knowledge with the help of meditation, self-examination, self-inquiry, and divine grace. After attaining this knowledge, we must make it firm with practice. We must not become careless. We must never forget how deceptive and powerful the veils of maya are; how undetectable her ways are of influencing our mind; and how important it is to safeguard and further nourish our newly discovered discerning knowledge.. Practice of these eight limbs of yoga serves as the cause in two categories – elimination of impurities and attainment of discriminative wisdom. Nine types of causes that are mentioned in the scriptures are:--Utpatti: production, Sthiti: maintenance, Abhivyakti: manifestation, expression, Vikāra: transmutation, modification, Pratyaya: cognition, Āpti: attainment, Viyoga: separation, Anyatva: otherness, differentiation, Dhṛti : sustenance ..Practice of the limbs of yoga is applicable as a cause for viyoga (separation of impurities) and apti (attainment of discriminative wisdom). Viveka-khyati is the complete opposite of avidya and is even more active. Discerning knowledge destroys our unwillingness to see the truth. It provides the courage to see the truth and gives us the strength and insight to see our deeply rooted habits (samskaras) and replace them with the samskaras of selfrealization (purusha-khyati/ atma-khyati). Discerning knowledge metamorphoses into an intense and irresistible desire (tiara samvega) to see and experience the absolute independence of consciousness (kaivalyam). The samskara created by this desire blocks all other desires. It grants us complete mastery over the mind and the subtle impressions deposited in the mind—as well as the binding and releasing forces of the mind that cause us to live in the world either miserably or happily. In other words, this knowledge contains an unprecedented level of revelation. When it dawns fully, the whole range of truth is available in its purity and perfection

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.29 : यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि॥२९॥
  • 29. Yama niyamāsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo’ ṣṭāvaṅgāni.
  • Moral injunctions (yama), fixed observances (niyama), posture (asana), regulation of breath (pranayama), internalisation of the senses towards their source (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and absorption of consciousness in the self (samadhi), are the eight constituents of yoga.
  • This sutra sets out the eightfold path of yoga (astahgayoga), which Patanjali continues to describe in detail in the remaining sutras of sadhana pada. Restraints and observances that are bound by tradition and lineage follow uninterruptedly in the practice of yoga. Although asana, pranayama and pratyahara are separate entities, they depend on one another for expressing the hidden aspects of yoga. These stages, which enable the seeker to heighten in the art of yoga, are called progressive sadhana. Through them one achieves a higher and even more higher state. The first five aspects of yoga are individual efforts for the evolution of the consciousness, while dharana, dhyana and samadhi are the universal manifestation or the natural states of yoga (yoga svaritpa). The practice of yoga is an art and science dedicated to creating union between body, mind and spirit. Its objective is to assist the practitioner in using the breath and body to foster an awareness of ourselves as individualized beings intimately connected to the unified whole of creation. In short it is about making balance and creating equanimity so as to live in peace, good health and harmony with the greater whole. It is important to perform all the eight limbs successfully to attain the objective of yoga.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻

  • 2.30 : अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः॥३०॥
  • 30. Ahiṁsā satyāsteya brahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ.
  • Non-violence, truth, abstention from stealing, continence, and absence of greed for possessions beyond one's need are the five pillars of yama.
  • The principle of yama involves wishing no harm in word, thought or deed; being sincere, truthful and honest; not stealing or misappropriating another's wealth or possessions; celibacy; and not accepting gifts or possessing only what one needs, without being avaricious. These rules and restraints are laid down clearly for one to live in society while remaining a yoga practitioner. The Yamas are nonviolence, truthfulness, refrainment from stealing, celibacy, and renunciation of ( unnecessary and superfluous )  possessions. The first two limbs that Patanjali describes are the fundamental ethical precepts called yamas, and the niyamas.   These can also be looked at as universal morality and personal observances. Yamas and niyamas are the suggestions given on how we should deal with people around us and our attitude toward ourselves. The attitude we have toward things and people outside ourselves is yama, how we relate to ourselves inwardly is niyama. Both are mostly concerned with how we use our energy in relationship to others and to ourselves. The yamas are broken down into five "wise characteristics." Rather than a list of dos and don’ts,  they tell us that our fundamental nature is compassionate, generous, honest and peaceful. Being the first limb of yoga, the five yamas are the foundation of spiritual life on which the super-structure of samadhi is built. Following the yamas means sticking to ideals and principles. It is about development of positive traits that will transform the human nature into a divine nature and annihilate cravings and negative qualities. When the yamas are truly practised, the heart is filled with cosmic love, goodness and light. There is a deliberate order in the five yamas. Ahimsa (non-violence) comes first because one must remove one’s brutal nature first. One must become non-violent and develop cosmic love. Only then does one become fit for the practice of yoga. Then comes satya or truthfulness. The whole phenomenon of maya or illusion is asat or unreal and the aspirant should be aware of this fact. He should ever remember the truth or Brahman. Next comes asteya or non-stealing. As one must develop moral consciousness, one must know right from wrong, righteousness from unrighteousness, and one must know that all is one. Brahmacharya or continence ( it has nothing to do with sex ) , which is the fourth yama, is a divine attribute. The aspirant is now becoming superhuman through its practice. The fifth is aparigraha, non-covetousness. The yogic student is now free from cravings, unnecessary wants, the desire to possess and enjoy, and his heart has expanded manifold.Yamas ( universal morality)  are as follows:--

    1. AHIMSA– Compassion for all living things. Ahimsa means you also do NOT approve of a evil man’s cruel actions of himsa and watch injustice as a coward and a impotent man—this is part of  ahimsa in its purest form. Ahimsa is not causing pain, not non-killing.. Himsa means to cause pain. Causing pain through words or thoughts can be even more harmful than killing. Ahimsa was the main theme of Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement in bringing freedom to India from the British. And he made sure that Jew Rotshchild robbed Bharatmata blind, while we ghumaaoed the charkha like napunksaks . Ahimsa as not injuring any living creature anywhere at any time within the perimeters of  dharma.  One must continue to perform one’s dharma even though it might mean killing , harmful enemies. Yogis should abstain from eating meat which involves nourishing one’s body by eating the flesh of other living beings. Being a vegetarian is an absolute requirement for an aspiring yogi. Ahimsa also encompasses giving up thoughts of malice and hatred as these produce tendency to hurt others through words or actions. The word ahimsa literally mean not to injure or show cruelty to any creature or any person in any way whatsoever. Ahimsa is, however, more than just lack of violence as adapted in yoga. It means kindness, friendliness, and thoughtful consideration of other people and things. It also has to do with our duties and responsibilities too. Ahimsa implies that in every situation we should adopt a considerate attitude . On the spiritual path, the first step is to eliminate the beastly nature. The predominant trait in beasts is cruelty; therefore, the wise sages prescribed ahimsa as the first yama. Ahimsa is positive love. It is to abstain from the slightest thought of harm to any living creature. The practitioner must abandon even unkind looks and scowls. There is no excuse or exception to the above rule. Harsh words to vulnerable people and  inferiors is himsa (cruelty). To fail to relieve pain or trouble in another is negative himsa. To approve of another’s harsh actions is also against ahimsa. So practise ahimsa in its purest form. 

    2. SATYA – Commitment to truthfulness . Speech should not be deceitful, misleading or devoid of value. It should benefit  and not harm anybody. As Manu says in his Manusmriti, "Let him not speak what is true but unkind; let him not speak what is kind but untrue". A common example quoted is the one from Mahabharata where when Drona asks of Yudhishthira (righteous son of dharma, known to speak the truth always) if his son, Ashwatthama was dead, Yudhishthira simply replied "yes, Ashwatthama is dead". This was truthful to the extent that the elephant by that name had died. However, the meaning conveyed to Drona was that his son had died. This is considered as misleading as it lead to great harm to Drona and his downfall. Satya means "to speak the truth," yet it is not always desirable to speak the truth on all occasions, for it could harm someone unnecessarily. We have to consider what we say, how we say it, and in what way it could affect others. If speaking the truth has negative consequences for another, then it is better to say nothing.  It is no use telling your wellwisher that you saw his mother in a whorehouse around the time he was conceived.  Satya should never come into conflict with our efforts to behave with ahimsa. This precept is based on the understanding that honest communication and action form the bedrock of any healthy relationship, community, or government, and that deliberate deception, exaggerations, and mistruths harm others.   Thought must agree with word and word with action. This is truthfulness. There is no room for hypocrisy. To think of one thing, say another and do another is nothing but crookedness. By telling lies you pollute your conscience and infect your subconscious mind. Truth means the strength to abide by positive principles. Speak the truth, but let it not be unpleasant and speak not any pleasing falsehood – this is eternal religion. It is said that if you speak the truth for twelve years, you will acquire vak siddhi, whatever you say will come to pass. There will be great power in your speech, you will be able to influence thousands. If you are established in truth, all other virtues will cling to you. Truth is like the brilliant sun, how long can you hide it ?  

    3. ASTEYA is not taking things belonging to others and not even having a desire to do so. Having a desire may ultimately lead one to stealing. Even if you find a treasure trove of jewels it should not be taken as it doesn’t belong to you. Steya means "to steal"; asteya is the opposite-to take nothing that does not belong to us. This also means that if we are in a situation where someone entrusts something to us or confides in us, we do not take advantage of him or her. Non-stealing includes not only taking what belongs to another without permission, but also using something for a different purpose to that intended, or beyond the time permitted by its owner.   The practice of asteya implies not taking anything that has not been freely given. This includes fostering a consciousness of how we ask for others’ time for inconsiderate behavior demanding another’s attention when not freely given is, in effect, stealing. Asteya is another form of self-restraint. Why does a person steal? He wants something. When he cannot get it by legitimate means, he steals it. Desire, thirst or trishna is the root cause of stealing. You remove a thing secretly without the knowledge of the owner and you do not want others to know of this act. This is stealing. Taking paper, pencil, etc. from the office is stealing. Hoarding too much money, eating too much, adding to your cravings are all forms of stealing. A yogic student must be free from all these forms of theft. Even a sensitive mind becomes blunt by continuous stealing. Even a little dirt, a little theft affects the mind of a yogic student seriously. He will have to be very careful. Then alone will he have success in yoga.  

    4. BRAHMACHARYA is sense control and sexual responsibility . It has nothing to do with abstaining from sex or a ridiculous withholding discharge of semen even when sexually aroused  ( like what Gandhi did , sleeping under the same blanket with naked underage girls). Brahmacharya does not necessarily imply celibacy as marital fidelity and dispassion from hedonism comes under brahmacharya .  Rather, it means responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth.  Brahmacharya is celibacy in thought, word and deed.  Brahmacharya is divine conduct.  Don't waste the sacred force by promiscuity in thought, word or deed. Be restrained with the opposite sex. Seek company of elevated souls. Dress and speak modestly. Shun pornography and crass sexual humor.  Swami Vivekananda gave us Jew Rothschild’s  bullshit — that power comes to him who observes unbroken Brahmacharya for a period of twelve years.  And he claimed he was one of those .  He wrote that complete sexual continence gives great intellectual and spiritual power and we can transform the sexual energy into spiritual energy- which  is pure bullshit.  Vivekananda attributed his phenomenal mental powers to a lifelong observance of brahmacharya (an extreme stage of irreversible sexual celibacy).   Sorry, this nonsense is not Sanatana Dharma. In his Raja Yoga, the Swami Vikananda gives bull - that through brahmacharya sex energy is converted into a higher form of psychic energy called ‘ojas.’ Ojas, literally meaning the ‘illuminating’ or ‘bright’ is the highest form of energy in the human body. In the spiritual aspirant who constantly practises continence and purity, other forms of energy are transmuted into ojas and stored in the brain, expressing as spiritual and intellectual power. Swami Vivekananda who claimed to be a brahmachari wrote “ A man who wants to be a perfect Yogi must give up the sex idea. The Soul has no sex; why should it degrade itself with sex ideas? –this is unadulterated bullshit which is not supported by Sananata Dharma. The white invader gave bull –that according to Ayurveda semen is the last Dhatu that is formed out of Majja or marrow. From food chyle (Rasa) is manufactured. Out of chyle comes blood (Rakta); out of blood comes flesh; out of flesh comes fat: out of fat comes marrow; out of marrow comes semen. These are the seven Dhatus.   Sorry, this bullshit is NOT Kerala Ayurveda. The most foul thing done was to encourage married men in Grihasta stage to practice Brahmacharya by sexual continence.   Gandhi used this lame lie , to discard his wife from his bedroom and take in a homosexual jew with an enema kit  .Later this German Jew was discarded to take in teenaged naked girls who would sleep with him under the same blanket and give Gandhi enema twice a day and vice versa. Rothschild got his fake and backdated Rishi Yajnavalkya to write:   “Brahmacharya is abstaining from sexual pleasure for ever, under all conditions and in all places, either physically, mentally or verbally.”Brahmacharya is about restraint ( avoiding looking down a plunging neckline ) and not suppression of sexual desire. In restraint no sexual thought will arise in the mind. What is wanted is restraint and not suppression of sexual desire. In restraint no sexual thought will arise in the mind. There is perfect sublimation of sexual energy. JEW ROTHSCHILD TRIED TO CREATE A SYSTEM WHERE HOMOSEXUALS WILL HIJACK HINDUISM, BY USING VIVEKANANDA TO PROPAGATE SEXUAL CELIBACY..EXACTLY THE WAY CATHOLIC CLERGY ARE BANNED FROM MARRYING. IT WONT WORK. ALL OUR MAHARISHIS WERE MARRIED. But in suppression the aspirant is not safe. When favourable opportunities occur, the repressed desire manifests with redoubled force and there is danger of a miserable downfall. What is wanted is deep inner life. Open yourself to higher spiritual consciousness. Feel the divine presence and divine guidance in your life.. Do not hide your thoughts. Pray for light, purity, strength, peace and knowledge. You will be established in brahmacharya. Kama refers to all the desires in man for the enjoyment and satisfaction and sensual gratification of the five human senses. Kama could be music or being creative or team spirit in sport or travelling to places of natural beauty or sitting with family at the beach or riding a fast horse or participating in a arrow shooting contest  - anything which brings delight to human life and spirit . It has absolutely nothing to do with lust and sexual orgasm.   Kama would refer to the totality of the innate desires and drives of man-  motivations of man. Kama refers to the instinctive and emotional life of man, and provides for the satisfaction of his aesthetic urges. Bhagavadgita rightly points out, "The objects of the senses turn away from the abstinent man leaving the longing behind, but this longing also turns away after he attains Self-realization".This has nothing to do with sex and semen alone. Anything in excess is bad.  Even too much drinking of water or too much oxygen or too much can kill a human being.In a broad sense, passion means any strong desire. In some children , there is an extra strong passion for video computer games . Passion done not mean a strong sexual appetite alone. This is a physical craving for instant gratification. Passion is a very strong desire.  A mild desire becomes a strong passion by frequent repetition or frequent enjoyment which leads to addiction. In old men and women, sexual passion gets suppressed naturally as long as the food is proper. It cannot do any havoc. It is only in young men and women who have reached adolescence that this passion becomes troublesome. This is why Sanatana Dharma has set a age for Vanaprasta ( 50 ) and Sanyasa stage ( 75 ) .In the vast majority of persons, the sexual craving is very intense.. In some, the sexual desire occasionally comes, but passes off quickly. There is mere agitation only, of a simple nature in the mind. By the proper method of spiritual Sadhana, this also can be completely eradicated. The whole idea of yoga is to harness such strong passions . Not marrying in grihasta stage or cutting off your balls to become a eunuch is not the solution. When you say , we must avoid car accidents while going to work, does not mean you stop working and stay at home. Only IDIOTS do this. You are expected to drive carefully in a sober manner  .

    5. APARIGRAHA is renunciation of unnecessary possessions.Aparigraha is the ability to see the problems caused by acquisition, preservation, and destruction of things, since these provoke attachment and injury. Possessions produce samskaras which activate in the future to cause distress if we can’t acquire items desired by us or losing the items that we possess. Yogis are advised to acquire only what is required for basic maintenance and give up all else. Parigraha is covetousness or greed. Aparigraha is a mental state in which the sensual craving is dead. Parigraha leads to anxiety to preserve, fear of loss, hatred, anger, untruthfulness, stealing, etc. Aparigraha puts an end to all these and bestows peace and contentment. It removes at one stroke fear, attachment, disappointment, anxiety, jealousy, anger, lust and depression. Aparigraha is indeed an aid to the practice of ahimsa, satya and asteya. When the craving is not satisfied you become angry, you hate the person who stands in your way of attaining things. You harm him in different ways, speak untruth and begin to steal things. Aparigraha removes all these. It is the foundation of all yogas, just as dhyana or meditation is the meeting point of all yogas. Neutralizing the desire to acquire and hoard wealth . The yamas are the moral virtues which, if attended to, purify human nature and contribute to health and happiness of society. Yoga is rooted in the notion of developing a positive personality. Therefore ethical discipline or the practice of correct conduct is necessary for success in yoga. This is the basis of yama and niyama, the two moral backbones of yoga. They define the attributes to be practised in everyday life by a spiritual aspirant. Yama is the first limb of Patanjali’s ashtanga yoga and means ‘taking a vow’ while niyama is the second limb and means ‘rule of conduct’. Yama and niyama are inter-dependent. Niyama strengthens and safeguards yama. For example, if one is contented, one will not steal, hurt others or tell lies and will find it easy to practise non-covetousness.  When one is sufficiently advanced in the practices of yamas and niyamas, one can face every temptation by calling in the aid of pure and restraining thoughts. When the mind becomes pure it attains the state of steadiness and becomes one-pointed. If these positive qualities are not cultivated, the mind cannot be led to steadiness. One needs to be well established in yama-niyama to attain perfection in yoga. When one is perfectly established in them, samadhi will come by itself.

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