॥४॥ कैवल्यपाद - 4. Kaivalya Pāda - Liberation



results: 11 - 20 of 34 from chapter 4

  • 4.11 : हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैः संगृहीतत्वादेषामभावे तदभावः॥११॥
  • 11. Hetu phalāśrayālambanaiḥ saṁgṛhītatvādeṣāmabhāve tadabhāvḥ.
  • Impressions and desires are bound together by their dependence upon cause and effect. In the absence of the latter, the former too ceases to function.
  • Lack of understanding - avidya, gives rise to suffering, which in turn create desires. This causes the endless cycle of rebirths.  The accumulated impressions of memory are without beginning, but have a definite end, provided the individual becomes cultured and discerning. When the formation of desire is kept in suspension, the cycle of rebirths come to an end. The sight of an object creates motivation, which acts as a springboard for desire. Desire nurtures motive, and motive ignites action aimed at fulfillment of the desire. This nourishes further desires, which then lodge permanently in the seat of the consciousness, binding the soul forever. Through regular, deferential practice of yoga, and the use of discriminative intelligence, this web of object, motivation, desire and reward is made to fade away. Then the pairs of opposites - vice and virtue, pain and pleasure, aversion and attachment - gradually weaken and then disappear. This brings sensitivity and refinement to the consciousness, which now averts desires and thoughts of reward, and directs its attention towards the exploration of the seer. In this sutra, Patanjali is briefly making us understand the nature of our desires. At one level, Desire is the cause and the effort we make to satisfy the same is its effect. But, desire itself is an effect, for which, the cause is in the chitta , the vasanas of past actions  which are stored in Chitta as Subtle samskaras, which are waiting to convert into desires and seek their satisfaction. Every action to satisfy a desire again leaves its imprint on the Chitta. This is called a vasana. It gets stored in Chitta as very subtle impressions called Samskaras. Sanskaras are like our habits. But, they are deeper imprints on the Chitta and may even be inherited from a previous birth. They are constantly driving us into actions for desire-satisfaction. The causes are these samskaras and the effects are the efforts that we are driven into, for their satisfaction. Every desire has to rest on the support of an Indriya and an external object. Thus, for each desire, there is an external object, and an indriya which supports the whole action to satisfy the desire, a desire which is the effect and a samskara in the Chitta which is the cause. We cannot remove the effects straightaway, when the causes are in tact in us. We must tackle the causes, the Samskaras and vasanas in us. We must also restrain the Indriyas from the external objects. Unless all four corners of the desire are tackled, there is no way to get rid of the cycle of desires. When we start with the causes, and look at all four pillars, and ensure their disappearance, desires automatically disappear. This does not mean indriyas and external objects will have to disappear. Their non-contact with each other is simple enough to break the cycle. Since the impressions  are held together by cause, motive, substratum, and object, they disappear when those deep impressions disappear. Four parts interact: All of our false identities, attractions, aversions, or fears exist along with an interplay of the process between four parts. These four hold together the deep impressions or samskaras described in the last two sutras . When these four are dissolved, the samskaras also dissolve. The four parts holding together the samskaras are: Cause: One thought leads to another. An action brings a consequence. The consequence gets stored in memory. It later gets triggered into more active thoughts and actions. On goes the cycle, over and over. This is the process of causation. Motive: Another part of the process, whether you conceptualize this in subtle ways, or gross ways, such as brain neurons, is that actions, speech, and thoughts come from a motivating process. This is somewhat self-evident; we are all aware of this. Substratum: In all of these cases, however you may specifically conceptualize it, there is the fact that every action, speech, or thought has some other root entity or process. Again, with a bit of reflection, this is also self evident. Object: In all of these false identities, attractions, aversions, or fears there are also objects, always, whether they are subtle objects of the mind, or their related gross objects of the external world. They are there, and the interplay with cause, motive, and substratum. : What would then happen to those deep impressions, if the four part chain of cause, motive, substratum, and object were broken? Then, the deep impressions would also cease to be repeatedly reinforced, which is what usually happens in the cycle of actions, consequences, actions, consequences, etc.. Then comes Self-realization: When all of that is set aside, even for a short time, the true Self comes shining through . The impressions being held together by cause, effect, basis, and support, they disappear with the dissappearance of these four. Our subconscious tendencies depend upon cause and effect. They have their basis in the mind, and they are stimulated by the sense-objects. If all these are removed, the tendencies are destroyed. These tendencies are both maintained and sustained by misapprehensions, external stimuli, attachment to the fruits of actions, and the quality of mind that promotes hyperactivity. Reduction of these automatically makes the undesirable impressions ineffective.  For a yogi, his involvement is the supportive element which makes the subtle material nature exist for him and engage him or use his consciousness.  Thus if he detaches himself the supportive element being removed, material nature no longer affects him.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.12 : अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम्॥१२॥
  • 12. Atītānāgatam svarūpato’styadhvabhedāddharmāṇām.
  • The existence of the past and the future is as real as that of the present. As moments roll into movements which have yet to appear as the future, the quality of knowledge in one's intellect and consciousness is affected.
  • The understanding of time liberates one from bondage. Time is a system revealing the sequential relation that one event has to succeed another and another and so on, as past, present, or future. Time is regarded as an indefinite continuous duration, wherein events follow one another.  The past and future are as real as the present. The orderly rhythmic procession of moments (ksana cakra) into movements is the wheel of time (kala cakra). Its existence is real and eternal.  The present may fade into the past, or manifest clearly at a future time. Due to the play of the gums of nature, conditions change, raising the illusion that time has changed.  Past and future are woven into the present, though they appear different due to the movement of moments.  Desire nurtures action aimed at its gratification. The interlude between desire, action and fulfillment involves time, which manifests as past, present and future. True understanding of motivation and the movement of moments release a yogi from the loop of bondage.  Moment is changeless and eternal. Moments flow into movements eternally and are measurable as past, present and future. This measurable time is finite, when contrasted with eternity.  The negative effects of time are intellectual (lack of spiritual knowledge, avidya, and pride, asmita); emotional (attachment to pleasure, raga, and aversion to pain, dvesa); and instinctive (the desire to cling to life, abhini-Qesa). Time's positive effect is the attainment of knowledge. The experience of the past supports the present, and progress in the present builds a sound foundation for the future. One uses the past as a guide to develop discriminative power, alertness and awareness, which smoothens the path for Self-Realisation. The yogi who studies in depth this unique rotation of time, stays detached from the movement of moments; he rests in the present. Thus he becomes clear of head, clean of heart, and free from time, which binds consciousness. When the concurrence between the movement of moments and consciousness terminates, freedom and beatitude - kaivalya, are experienced. Human concept of time is not based on reality, but merely on the perception of the senses and the mind, whose capabilities are limited. In reality, the whole of past exists even now, in this very moment, but, it is hidden from human perception by being placed in a different plane, which is unavailable to human eye and mind. Likewise, the whole of future too, is available right now, in this moment. This is also hidden from eye and mind, by being placed in a different plane, unavailable to us. Past and future have different characteristics compared to his moment. The power to perceive those characteristics is not available to ordinary human mind. But, certainly, these are not beyond the Yogi’s power of perception. We live in the present. But, as we all know, our mind is constantly oscillating between the past and future. In fact, it is very difficult to keep the mind in this moment. The Yogi’s effort is not to go into the past or into the future, but, to keep the mind in the here and now. But, Patanjali affirms that past and present are available in the present moment itself – in different planes, due to their different characteristics. It is not that past just vanishes away totally, nor that future comes into our life from nothingness.  They are always available but come into our consciousness as the present moment only and then go back into their planes. Past and future are in the here and now: All of the characteristics, forms, memories, deep impressions, etc., exist in the here and now, whether in active or potential forms. The appearance of past and future comes from the condition, path, or order in which they are sequenced.  The existence of the past and the future is as real as that of the present. As moments roll into movements which have yet to appear as the future, the quality of knowledge in one's intellect and consciousness is affected.  Time is not an illusion.  It is real in that sense.  Because of definite characteristics, there is a certain course which time takes from the past into the present and into the yet-emerging future.  The inherent characteristics (dharmanam) from the past mold the future.  The changes which come about in the present are stockpiled by time as the basis for slight or major differences which are to come.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.13 : ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्मा गुणात्मानः॥१३॥
  • 13. Te vyaktasūkṣmāḥ guṇātmānḥ.
  • The three phases of time intermingle rhythmically and interweave with the qualities of nature. They change the composition of nature's properties into gross and subtle.
  • Desires, actions and rewards are not only intertwined with the cycle of time, but are also composed and hidden according to the rhythmic movement of sattva, rajas and tamas. They may manifest and be brought to the surface, or remain hidden and rise up later. Bound to the wheel of time by the gunas, man started to form ideas, fuelled by desires in the fire of consciousness. Then, through past actions and experiences, he began to mould his life in order to gain freedom from dualities. This involved time, which has no beginning or end, is simply a succession of moments. Though each moment is eternal and real in its continuous flow, it changes into movement. To be free from the cycles of cause and effect, man has to mould his behaviour from moment to moment. The cause is subtle but the effect is felt. The effects of one's actions of yesterday are the cause of today; and the experience of one's actions today becomes the seed of the actions tomorrow. All actions revolve around time and the qualities of nature. A yogi has learned to weaken ignorance and increase the light of knowledge. He has moved from ignorance to knowledge, and darkness to light, from death to immortality. He alone knows how to live freely, unaffected by the onslaughts of nature. This is kaivalya. When the whole Universe is composed of the three Gunas, naturally, the past, present, and future also are composed of the same three gunas. There is nothing in life which is not connected with the three Gunas. In every life form, we can see all the three Gunas but in different proportions . Satva Guna represented by Stability can be seen in the non-changeability and permanence of the past.  Rajoguna represented by action can be seen the present. All action happens only in the present. No action can take place in the past or future. But, the present is a continuity in itself and we do know it. That is why all action can and does occur in the present only. Tamoguna represented by inertia can be seen in the future. The future never comes! It is always away. It is never experience-able directly. It is always in seed form. The Tree always belongs to the present.  In our knowledge, the present always recedes into the past, even as future drives itself into the present constantly.  Past had manifested earlier. Present is now manifest. Future remains un-manifest. In all the three cases, all the three of them are composed of the three Gunas only. When there is perfect equilibrium between the three gunas, there is no manifestation of the universe. It is only when there are fluctuations or modifications (vikaras or vikritis) among them that there begins to be manifestation.  The three phases of time intermingle rhythmically and interweave with the qualities of nature. They change the composition of nature's properties into gross and subtle.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.14 : परिणामैकत्वाद्व्स्तुतत्त्वम्॥१४॥
  • 14. Pariṇāmaikatvādvastutattvam.
  • Unity in the mutation of time caused by the abiding qualities of nature, sattva, rajas and tamas causes modifications in objects, but their unique essence, or reality, does not change.
  • As there is a harmonious alteration between sattva, rajas and tamas (prakasa, kriya and sthiti), both in nature and in the individual self, so there are differences in the way one perceives objects. According to the predominating gunas in one's intelligence, an object is perceived differently, although its essence remains the same. The yogi penetrates the harmonious combination of nature with its gunas, clearly understands their mutations, and stays detached from them. This study helps him to remain in the essence of his object of contemplation, which is not bound by time or qualities of nature. This object is the unchangeable seer, or the soul. The seer is not bound by time, whereas mind is. Due to one's accumulated desires and impressions, one's ways of thinking, seeing and feeling change. Truth is One, and one must experience it in its real essence, without distinctions. If it seems to fluctuate, that is because one's intelligence and perception fluctuates, and this prevents one from seeing the essential truth. If intelligence and consciousness are filtered and refined, both subject and object retain and reflect their real essence. When Patanjali says that dualities disappear when asanas are performed perfectly (11.48), he is explaining that the essence of an object does not vary - subject and object merge into one, so distinctions between them do not arise. Each object externally appears to be a single unit to our perception. But, the object is a mix of all the three Gunas. In fact, all objects, all living beings are formed by the different combinations of the three Gunas, which mix in any number of proportions. The three gunas (4.13) all manifest together, and the result is the appearance of a single object, rather than seeing the parts which make up the whole. Only the composite is seen, not the three components. Since the gunas work together within every change of form and expression, there is a unity in all things. The characteristics of an object appear as a single unit, as they manifested uniformly from the underlying elements. The actual composition of an object is based on the uniqueness of the transformation.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.15 : वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः॥१५॥
  • 15. Vastusāmye citta bhedāt tayorvibhaktḥ panthāḥ.
  • Due to the variance in the quality of mind-content, each person may view the same object differently, according to his own way of thinking.
  • The object (nature or prakrti) is as real as the subject (purusa), but though the substance of nature or object remains the same, the perceptions of it vary according to the difference in the development of each person's consciousness. Here, consciousness is the perceiver and the object perceived becomes the object to be known. On account of the wheel of time, substance and qualities of nature and consciousness as perceiver develops differently in each individual. Though different perceivers see an object in different fashions, yet it remains the same. For instance, the same man or woman is a pleasure to a beloved or a lover and a pain to a rival. He or she may be an object of indifference to an ascetic and of no interest to a renunciate. Thus, the object is the same, the perceiver sees in the light of the interplay of the various gunas. When the yogi realises that the perceiver in the form of consciousness is not the real perceiver but an instrument of its lord - the seer or purusa - it begins to discard its fluctuations and also its outer form, ego, so as to merge into a single un-vacillating mind. This allows the single mind to unite in the seer, and the seer to shine forth in the light of the soul. This is atmo jnana, leading to Brahma jnana. Objects are existing independent of the minds that perceive them. But, our perception of these objects depends entirely on our different mindsets. Each person perceiving the same object, perceives it differently  because their mindsets have grown in different circumstances with differing perceptional abilities. A doctor, an artist and a lover do not see the same person in the same way. Doctor sees the physical health and ill-health aspects, artist sees the beauty of the person from his view-point and the lover’s eyes can’t see anything ugly in the person. We often wonder why we have so many views on the same incident. A murder has happened. Someone tries to justify it as an accident. Someone sympathizes with the murderer. Someone looks at the murdered person’s body with mere curiosity. Someone turns his face away from the dead body.  But, the murdered person’s wife and kith and kin fall on the body and weep profusely and demand justice. The brother of the murdered person’s wife may pick up a knife himself and go after the murderers. Perceptions and responses differ from mindset to mindset – due to the division of the ways of perception. We are all different in our mindsets. We all differ in our perceptions. But, external objects, happenings are same. Patanjali is offering us a psychological explanation of why the turmoil and differences in the world. Due to the variance in the quality of mind-content, each person may view the same object differently, according to his own way of thinking.   The characteristics of an object appear differently, depending upon the different mental states of the observer.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.16 : न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात्॥१६॥
  • 16. Na caika citta tantram vastu tad apramāṇakam tadā kim syāt?
  • An object exists independent of its cognisance by any one consciousness. What happens to it when that consciousness is not there to perceive it?
  • The essence of an object is not dependent upon one's mind or consciousness. If the mind or consciousness does not recognise the object, it means that mind or consciousness does not see, or that the object does not stimulate the seer. But this does not mean that the object does not exist. As prakrti is as real and eternal as purusa, so are object and subject. Due to unripe intelligence and differences in the development of consciousness, each individual perceives objects according to his own intellectual 'wavelength', although their essence does not change. When a yogi reaches perfection in his sadhana, intelligence and consciousness touch the supreme knowledge - he becomes a fulfilled yogi, and remains merely a detached witness of objects. The mind ignites stimuli in the senses of perception, or vice versa, and the organs of action participate, so that the mind can experience objects. These experiences are imprinted according to the development of the mind, and in turn create impressions on the consciousness. If an object does not stir the mind, it remains unperceived by the mind or the mind fails to grasp it. When the mind is released from the play of the gunas, it perceives objects in their true reality, and remains free from impressions. Its contact with perceived objects is cut off. Then mind and soul become one, and are one with the essence of all objects. The objects themselves are independent of the perceiving minds. Whether any mindset perceives it or not is immaterial for the object. Reality exists independent of our perception.  Our perceptions of reality are hugely different from reality and are based on our limited, differing perceptual capabilities. An object exists independent of its cognizance by any one consciousness.  Yoga focuses on the practical path of going beyond the levels of reality, so as to experience the eternal center.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.17 : तदुपरागापेक्षत्वाच्चित्तस्य वस्तु ज्ञाताज्ञातम्॥१७॥
  • 17. Taduparāgāpekṣitvāccittasya vastu jñātājñātaṁ.
  • An object remains known or unknown according to the conditioning or expectation of the consciousness.
  • Consciousness is not the seer, but an instrument of the seer. A conditioned mind can never perceive an object correctly. If the mind sees the object without expectation, it remains free. An object is understood and known according to the expectation of the mind, or remains unrecognized, owing to the absence of reflection. When the object attracts the mind, contact and reflection begin. This gives rise to knowledge. If the mind fails to come in contact with the object, it does not perceive it and the object remains unknown. If consciousness is conditioned or coloured (vrttis and Mesas - 1.6 and 11.6), knowledge of the object also becomes coloured. When the consciousness reflects on the object without condition, taint or expectation, its real essence is known. Likewise, if the consciousness reflects on the essence of the seer without conditioning, bias, or prejudice, the mind becomes enlightened. It knows that it is not itself the seer, but only an instrument of the seer. The un-enlightened mistake mind and consciousness for the seer. Objects exist independent of the mind. But, whether we will know them or not depends upon whether we perceive them or not – and when we perceive them, how we perceive them. Our perceptions are coloured. They are conditioned by many, many factors connected with our upbringing and professions. Our minds never remain uncoloured. A yogi looks at every woman as a mother. A sexist may look at every woman as a sex object. Every human being’s perceptions are coloured and conditioned by their background. Whether we will know the object itself, and how much of it’s reality we will know,  depends on these factors. Objects are either known or not known according to the way in which the coloring of that object falls on the coloring of the mind observing it. Objects are either known or not known according to the way in which the coloring of that object falls on the coloring of the mind observing it. In other words, it is the coloring of one's own mind that determines perception. Reduce coloring to see clearly: In the previous section (4.13-4.14) the very subtle building blocks (gunas) of the subconscious mental impressions are dealt with. Even these most subtle elements, like the more surface thought patterns, are subject to the same principle and practice of uncoloring (aklishta) the colored (klishta) thought patterns. This process of uncoloring is a core principle of the science of Yoga. Whether an object is perceived or not depends on its accessibility as well as the individual's motivation. Objects are either known or not known according to the way in which the coloring of that object falls on the coloring of the mind observing it.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.18 : सदा ज्ञाताश्चित्तवृत्तयस्तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात्॥१८॥
  • 18. Sadā jñātāścittavṛttayastatprabhoḥ puruṣasyāpariṇāmitvāt.
  • Purusa is ever illuminative and changeless. Being constant and master of the mind, he always knows the moods and modes of consciousness.
  • The Lord of consciousness is the seer. He is changeless, constant, and never alters or stumbles. In deep sleep, consciousness forgets itself. It is purusa, as a witness which reminds the mind of sleep after waking. This designates that purusa is ever alert and aware (sada jnata). Purusa's alertness will be known to the sadhaka only when consciousness is purified and liberated from rising thoughts and their restraints. Then the sadhaka, the seeker, becomes the seer. The seer knows his consciousness and its branchings. He is the seed and root, and consciousness is the seedling. Its stem is the 'I' consciousness (asmita), which branches forth as ego, intelligence and mind. The seer, being the seed and root of consciousness, observes the changes and transformations taking place within it. The mind is never constant. It is ever-changing.  Our thoughts, ideas, perceptions are always changing. These are the modifications of our mind. But, behind these modifications, there is an unchanging PURUSHA, the pure consciousness, who is the watcher of all these modifications. The Purusha is the constant witness of the mind and its modifications. The Purusha is superior to and is the master of the Chitta.  In other words, always two things are happening simultaneously in us. At one level, within the mind is a constant stream of ever-changing thoughts, emotions, ideas, desires and so on. Behind all this changes in the mind – there is a witnessing soul – the Purusha, who is changeless  and permanent. It is only against this unchanging background of the Purusha, that all changes can occur in the mind. This unchanging Purusha is the lord, the pure consciousness, the real ruler of the mind-stuff. And, he does it merely by witnessing and not participating. The activities of the mind are always known by the pure consciousness, because that pure consciousness is superior to, support of, and master over the mind. The activities of the mind are always known by the pure consciousness, because that pure consciousness is superior to, support of, and master over the mind. Purusa is ever illuminative and changeless. Being constant and master of the mind, he always knows the moods and modes of consciousness. Because the Atman, the Lord of the mind, is unchangeable, the mind's fluctuations are always known to it.  The activities of the mind are always known by the pure consciousness, because that pure consciousness is superior to, support of, and master over the mind.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.19 : न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात्॥१९॥
  • 19. Na tat svābāsam dṛśyatvāt.
  • Consciousness cannot illumine itself, because it is a knowable object.
  • Consciousness can be seen as an object. It is knowable and perceptible. It is not self-illuminative like the seer. Consciousness being the seedling of the seer, its growth and luminosity depends upon the seed - the light of the seer. Its own light is like that of the moon, which is reflected light from the sun. The seer represents the sun, and consciousness the moon. As a child feels strong and secure in the presence of its parents, consciousness, the child of the seer, draws its strength from the seer. Consciousness, like the senses of perception, can generally see an object but not its own form. For an average person, the eyes pose as the seer when comprehending worldly objects. For an intellectual person, the eyes become the seen, and the mind the seer. For an enlightened person, mind and intelligence become objects for the consciousness. But for the wise seer, consciousness itself becomes the object perceived. The seer can be subject and object at the same time; consciousness cannot. It may hence be deduced that consciousness has no light of its own. When the borrowed light of consciousness is drawn back to its source, the seer, or soul, glows brilliantly. The Purusha remains the witness and perceives everything through the mind and the mind itself. This being so, the mind is not the power that actually perceives. This power lies with the Purusha. Purusha’s power only reflects through the mind .Mind is not self-illuminating, as it is the object of knowledge and perception by the pure consciousness. Mind is made of the three gunas , and is not, in itself, consciousness. Rather, consciousness (purusha) operates through the mind. When the consciousness (purusha) operates through the mind, it is also witness of the mind. The instrument of thinking itself is being seen and transcended in the pursuit of the direct experience of pure consciousness.  The mind is a part of what is perceived and has no power of its own to perceive. The Purusa alone is self-luminous, and gives its light to everything. 

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻



  • 4.20 : एकसमये चोभयानवधारणम्॥२०॥
  • 20. Ekasamaye cobhayānavadhāraṇaṁ.
  • Consciousness cannot apprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.
  • It cannot comprehend subject-object, observer-observed, or actor-witness at the same time, whereas the seer can. Day and night cannot exist simultaneously. In the same way, restlessness and restfulness cannot co-exist in absolute juxtaposition. In between night and day there is dawn. Likewise, there is space between the flow of restlessness, cittavritti or cittavahini, and restfulness, prasanta vritti or prasanta vahini. In between these two rivers of restlessness and restfulness, and underneath them, flows the concealed invisible secret river - the river of the soul. This is dawn, or the sudden arrival of enlightenment. For a yogi, restlessness is the night and restfulness is the day. In between, there is a third state which is neither day nor night, but dawn. It is the dispersion of consciousness, in which the rivers of restlessness and restfulness unite in the seat of absolute consciousness. When the water of a lake is tranquil, the reflection of the moon on its surface is crystal clear. Similarly, when the lake of consciousness is serene, consciousness disperses itself. This is known as a glimpse, or a reflection of the soul. The seer, being constant and unchangeable, can perceive the fluctuations as well as the serenity of consciousness. If consciousness itself were self-luminous, it too could be the knower and the knowable. As it does not possess the power to be both, a wise yogi disciplines it, so that he may be alive to the light of the soul.  It is stated in the Bhagavad Gita (11.69) 'One who is self-controlled is awake when it appears night to all other beings, and what appears to him as night keeps others awake'. A yogic sadhaka thus realises that when consciousness is active, the seer is asleep and when the seer is awake, it is night to the consciousness.  Similarly, in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the word ha is used to indicate the seer as the 'sun', which never fades, whereas tha represents consciousness as the 'moon', which eternally waxes and wanes. We know that mind itself can be cognized. But, the whole cognition process happens only through the mind. It must be clear to us that cognition of the mind and cognition of the external matters and objects cannot happen simultaneously through the same mind itself. Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously. Awareness of mind and witness don't coexist: It is not possible to be aware of an object in the mind field at the same time there is awareness of one's true nature as the illuminator of the mind. It cannot execute the focus of both at the same time. If the mind were self-luminous it would be able to cognize everything at the same time, which it cannot.  If the mind were self-luminous there would be no limit to the impressions it could receive. The Purusa can cognise all in one moment; therefore the Purusa is self-luminous, and the mind is not.  Consciousness cannot comprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.

    ༺ ࿘ ॐ ࿗ ༻