॥४॥ कैवल्यपाद - 4. Kaivalya Pāda - Liberation



results: 31 - 34 of 34 from chapter 4

  • 4.31 : तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्याज्ज्ञेयमल्पम्॥३१॥
  • 31. Tadā sarvāvaraṇamalāpetasya jñānasyānantyājjñeyamalpam.
  • Then, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial.
  • The stream of virtue extinguishes all the veils of impurities. The yogi is devoid of doubts, preconceptions and prejudices. The infinite light of the soul illumines him continuously, and his consciousness and the seer become one. For him, knowledge gained through the organs of cognition and through consciousness are insignificant compared with the infinite wisdom emanating from the soul. This sutra describes the characteristics of the yogi who is devoid of afflicting actions. His head becomes clear and his heart clean and pure as crystal. When the clouds dissipate, the sky becomes clear. When the sun is bright, no other light is required. When the light of the soul blazes, the yogi does not need mind or intelligence to develop knowledge. . In this sutra, as the consciousness has been fully matured, he cautions the yogi that if fissures are formed in the cttta, afflictions will affect him instantaneously and not at a future time. His knowledge springs eternally from the seed of all knowledge (atman) and jnana gahga (perennial river of wisdom), and he perceives directly. The cover that has clouded the Jnanam is now totally removed. It is shining in its pristine purity and totality now.  The Jneyam, the thing to be known is now almost nothing. Or alpam. In this state, the Purusha starts functioning by himself, and mind merely remains without clouding his experience and vision. Purusha sees and experiences the reality totally. There are no barriers whatsoever for him now. It can also be said, he is now the reality himself. Then all the coverings and impurities of knowledge are totally removed. Because of the infinity of this knowledge, what remains to be known is almost nothing. The, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial. Then the whole universe, with all its objects of sense-knowledge, becomes as nothing in comparison to that infinite knowledge which is free from all obstructions and impurities. When the mind is free from the clouds that prevent perception, all is known, there is nothing to be known.  When those veils are only temporarily removed or set aside, the process of purifying continues, recalling that instructions were even given on how to deal with breaches in enlightenment .  First comes the direct experience of the infinite. It might be only a glimpse, but even that glimpse may qualitatively reveal the height of Truth . Then comes knowledge: One of the results of that direct experience is the knowledge of the simplicity of things, that there really is little to know. Then keep purifying: After that realization, we then continue with renewed conviction the process of removing karma, etc. Karma is removed: Finally, all karma is removed through the coming of the rain cloud of virtues described in the previous sutra.  The realization that there is little to know is deliciously amusing, amazing, wonderful, and filled with joy.  These insights come because of seeing the nature of the gunas , the way the subtle mind operates, and realizing the higher discrimination. Then knowledge, bereft of covering and impurities, becoming infinite, the knowable becomes small.  Knowledge itself is there; its covering is gone. 

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  • 4.32 : ततः कृतार्थानां परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम्॥३२॥
  • 32. Tataḥ kṛtārthānām pariṇāmakramasamāptirguṇānām.
  • When dharma megha samadhi is attained, qualities of nature (gunas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end.
  • Having transformed the yogi's consciousness by the radiation of the rays of the soul, the orderly mutations and rhythmic sequences of the qualities of nature, sattva, rajas and tamas come to an end. Their tasks are fulfilled, and they return to nature. The essence of intelligence and the essence of consciousness both now retire to rest in the abode of the soul. The master, the seer or the soul, is independent. He keeps the gunas in suspension, or uses them when necessary. They enthusiastically serve him as committed servants, without influencing him as before, and without interfering in his true glory. Now the three primary gunas have totally fulfilled their purpose for him. They are no more needed for the enlightened yogi. He has transcended all their use. Ordinarily, the three Gunas are the ones, which go on creating an ordered sequence of events for the sadhaka, which he has to go through all his life.  Now, the Yogi has transcended that ordered sequence of events and transformations. There is no more need for them in his life. He is beyond all the three Gunas. Therefore, having fulfilled their part in his life, the gunas recede back into the essence from which they have come. They, which means, the world of three Gunas, no more undergoes any transformation in the experience of the enlightened Yogi. The Purusha had jumped from the Divine into the world of prakruthi. There he learnt all the lessons that prakruthi had to offer; He was covered by the Maya, of the three Gunas, which were constantly transforming his world. But, as yogi, he began coming out from one barrier after another, set for him by the Maya. The ultimate barrier of dharma megha also having been transcended, the Purusha is back into the divine. The whole prakruthi of the three Gunas, cannot any more, set any barriers for him.  He is now a muktha Purusha. Also resulting from that dharma-meghah samadhi, the three primary elements or gunas  will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and recede back into their essence. The interplay of the three gunas were earlier seen to be the cause for pain , and sadhana was done so as to discard this pain before it comes. The coming of the dharma-meghah samadhi also brings to an end the need for the three subtle transitions previously discussed . Thus, the subtle material nature, having fulfilled its purpose, its progressive alterations end. When dharmameghah samadhi is attained, qualities of nature (gunas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end. The three basic qualities cease to follow the sequence of alternating pain and pleasure.  Resulting from that dharma-meghah samadhi , the three primary elements or gunas  will have fulfilled their purpose, cease to transform into further transformations, and recede back into their essence.

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  • 4.33 : क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्तनिग्रार्ह्यः क्रमः॥३३॥
  • 33. Kṣaṇapratiyogī pariṇāmāparāntanirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ.
  • As the mutations of the gunas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of time is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation.
  • The sequence of time is related to the order of movements of the gunas of nature. Only the yogi recognises this inter-relationship and is free from gunas. The uninterrupted succession of moments is called time. These movements of moments and the uninterrupted mutation of the gunas of nature are distinctly recognisable at the culminating point of transformation. The average person is not aware of moments - he understands their movement as past, present and future. When moments sup away from one's awareness, one lives in movements. Memory begins to exert its influence, and consciousness is felt at this juncture in the movements of time. The perfect yogi lives in the moment without getting involved in movements - the movements of moments are arrested, and psychological and chronological time comes to an end. Living in the moment, the yogi sees the seer. This is evolution. Nature eternally helps the intelligence and consciousness towards evolution (parinama nityan), whereas the seer remains eternally changeless (kutastha nityan). Evolution takes place in a moment. Moment implies instant while movement implies time. When change comes, it arrives at once in a moment, only after a series of efforts involving movements of time. Transformation does not come without effort. As change is noticeable to an average individual, so the end transformation is distinguishable to a yogi by virtue of his pure wisdom - dharma megha samadhi. He is free from time, place and space, while others remain trammeled in this net. He is neither attracted towards nature nor disturbed by it. He is now a divine yogi. Every change is clearly perceived only at the end of the transformation process. Not, when the change was happening from moment to moment. It is true that each moment presents a point of change in any ordered sequence of changes. But, the perception of the change is really clear, only when the sequence ends. All the three Gunas need to undergo the full change  - and then, the full change becomes comprehensible. This implies two things. (1) Every moment a part of the total change is taking place. But, in that moment, the change is not comprehensible. (2) At some point, a total change has been completed – and it becomes perceptible and comprehensible. For the Yogi, the three Gunas have stopped their transformation process. This means, the total change is visible, experience-able, and knowable for the Yogi. But, the same has not happened for all others. For all others, the change continues; the transformation continues; and every moment, there is change; they are not able to see the change that will come tomorrow. But, not so, for the yogi who has gone beyond the dharma megha Samadhi. For him, there is no further transformation, which is hidden from him.  All changes are known to him. The sequencing process of moments and impressions corresponds to the moments of time, and is apprehended at the end point of the sequence. Here, in this sutra, time is being described as the uninterrupted sequence or order of the many impressions in the field of mind. It is this sequencing that brings the appearance of time. Think of a reel of movie film. You can hold it, and all of the frames in your hand, at one moment of time, and yet, when you play the movie through a projector, you create the appearance of time. It is because of the sequencing of the frames, one after the other, that there appears to be time. The "Aha!" moment of understanding a sequence of moments, impressions, or frames comes at the end of the sequence. Recall that great emphasis is placed on these transition moments in sutras. When you can see these moments at the end of the sequence, you come to understand the transformation process itself, and can see beyond the avidya or ignorance that veils the true self.  Break the pattern of sequencing to transcend time: Most of the time, we are caught up in time, identified with those thought patterns, whether gross or subtle in nature. Now, in these last few sutras, all of those patterns have been reduced to their primal reality, that of the three gunas. If you break the identity with the patterns, and the sequencing process, then you break the process of time, space, and causation. The process, of which moments are a counterpart, and which causes the alterations, comes to an end and is clearly perceived.The advanced yogi alone achieves this.  This is an individual accomplishment, where the yogi sees the moments, which in sequence make up time which is itself the changing mundane energy (gunanam).  The yogi clearly perceives this from afar.  What hypnotizes other and keeps them under its control subjectively and objectively, is looked upon by the yogin, just as the God would normally see it.As the mutations of the gunas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of tie is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation. This is the sequence of the mutations which take place at every moment, but which are only perceived at the end of a series.  A sequence is the replacement of one characteristic by one that follows it. This is linked to moment. A replacement of characteristics is also the basis of moment.

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  • 4.34 : पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति॥३४॥
  • 34. Puruṣārthaśūnyānām guṇānām pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyam svarūpa pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktir iti.
  • Kaivalya, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the purusarthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the gunas.
  • The yogi with the stream of virtuous knowledge is devoid of all aims of life as he is free from the qualities of nature. Purusarthas are man's four aims in life - dharma (science of duty), artha (purpose and means of life), kama (enjoyments of life) and moksa (freedom from worldly pleasures). They leave the fulfilled seer and fuse in nature.  Patanjali speaks of the purusarthas only in the very last sutra. His thoughts on the purusarthas are implicitly contained in the earlier chapters, and expressed clearly at the end. Thus, the four padas are, consciously or unconsciously, founded on these four aims and stages of activity.  Dharma is the careful observation of one's ethical, social, intellectual and religious duties in daily Life. Strictly stating, this is taught at the level of studentship, but it must be followed throughout life; without this religious quality in daily life, spiritual attainment is not possible.  Artha is acquisition of wealth in order to progress towards higher pursuits of life including understanding the main purpose of life. If one does not earn one's own way, dependence on another will lead to a parasitic life. One should never be greedy while accumulating wealth, but only to meet one's needs, so that one's body is kept nurtured and one may be free from worries and anxieties. In this stage one also finds a partner with whom to lead a householder's life. One comes to understand human love through individual friendship and compassion, so that one may later develop a universal fellowship leading to the realisation of divine love. The householder is expected to satisfy his responsibilities of bringing up his children and helping his fellow men. Thus, married life has never been considered a hindrance to happiness, to divine love or to the union with the Supreme Soul.  Kama means enjoyment of the pleasures of life, provided one does not lose physical health, or harmony and balance of mind. The Self cannot be experienced by a weakling, and the body, the temple of the soul, has to be treated with care and respect. Asana, pranayama and dhyana, therefore, are essential to purify the body, stabilise the mind and clarify the intelligence. One must learn to use the body as a bow, and asana, pranayama and dhyana as arrows to be aimed at the target - the seer or the soul. Moksa means liberation, freedom from the bondage of worldly pleasures. It is the experience of emancipation and beatitude, possible only when one is free from physical, psychological, intellectual and environmental afflictions , and from poverty, ignorance and pride. In this state one realises that power, knowledge, wealth and pleasure are merely passing phases. Each individual has to work hard to free himself from the qualities of nature (gunas) in order to master them and become a gunahtan. This is the very essence of life, a state of indivisible, infinite, full, unalloyed bliss. These aims involve virtuous actions and are linked with the qualities of nature and the growth of consciousness. When the goal of freedom is attained, the restricting qualities of consciousness and nature cease to exist. At this point of fulfilment, the yogi realises that the seeker, the seer and the instrument used to cognise the seer is atman. This absoluteness of consciousness is nothing but the seer. Now, he is established in his own nature. This is kaivalyavastha.  The practice of yoga serves every aim of life. Through the proper use of the organs of action, senses of perception, mind, ego, intelligence and consciousness, their purpose of serving their Lord, the seer, comes to an end, and these vestments of the seer, along with the qualities of nature, coil and withdraw, to unite in the root of nature (mula-prakrti).  There, they are held and isolated. By this, the citta becomes pure and supreme. In this supreme state, citta divinely merges in the abode of the seer so that the seer can shine forth in his immaculate, pure and untarnished state of aloneness. Now, the yogi shines as a king amongst men. He is crowned with spiritual wisdom. He is a krtarthan - a fulfilled soul, who has learned to control the property of nature. He brings purity of intelligence into himself. He is now free from the rhythmic mutation of gunas, of time, and thus released from aims and objects, as his search for the soul ends. All the twenty-four principles of nature move back into nature and the twenty-fifth, the seer, stands alone, in kaivalyam. He is one without a second; he lives in benevolent freedom and beatitude. With this power of pure consciousness, citta shakti, he surrenders completely to the seed of all seers, Paramatma or God. Lord Krishna, in the Bhagavad Gita (XVIII.6I-62), explains that 'the Supreme Ruler abides in the hearts of all beings and guides them, mounting them on wheels of knowledge should seek refuge by surrendering all actions as well as himself to the Supreme Spirit or God' so that he journeys from Self-Realisation towards God-Realisation.  Patanjali began the journey towards the spiritual kingdom with the word atha, meaning 'now'. He ends with the word iti, meaning 'that is all'. The yogi has reached his goal. The whole drama of the world goes on due to the emergence of the three gunas (or prakruti) as the coverage or aavarana around the Purusha – making him dance with the mind-field and its vrittis. Now, they have resolved back into their original form into the prakriti, leaving the Purusha free from the covering, or from the barriers created by them. The Chitta vrittis were the barriers. Purusha has scored a total victory over them now. Therefore, the three Gunas resolve back to their original position in the Prakriti. The yogi has conquered the chitta vrittis completely. He is now liberated from all of them, totally. He has emerged enlightened . He is now established in his original nature. This is kaivalya. When those primary elements involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness becomes established in its true nature. When those primary elements or gunas involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness (purusha) becomes established in its true nature . Such an enlightened Yogi is purely spontaneous, with no actions whatsoever being motivated by the inner drives of samskaras and karma. One hundred percent of actions are from the here-and-now response to the needs of the moment, in relation to the service of other beings. This is easy for such a yogi, as there is no I and no other; it is all a constant flow of pure, undivided consciousness (purusha), that only seems to play, here, there, and everywhere. Kaivala, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the purusarthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the gunas. Aims and gunas return to their source, and consciousness is established in its own natural purity. Since the gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is liberation. The Atman shines forth in its own pristine nature, as pure consciousness. When the highest purpose of life is achieved the three basic qualities do not excite responses in the mind. That is freedom. In other words, the Perceiver is no longer colored by the mind. When those primary elements involve, or resolve themselves back into that out of which they emerged, there comes liberation, wherein the power of pure consciousness becomes established in its true nature.

    Here ends the exposition of kaivalya, the fourth pada of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.

    Patanjali Maharishi covered everything in the mystic practice of yoga. All glories unto him.




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